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127 Cards in this Set

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Which method of mining is considered to be the most dangerous and have fatal accidents commonly associated with it?


A) acid drainage


B) open pit mining


C) strip mining


D) subsurface mining


E) ocean mining

subsurface mining

The most commonly mined mineral resources in the U.S. are __________.


A) gold


B) tantalum


C) diamonds


D) sand and gravel


E) iron

sand and gravel

Acute exposure to an environmental toxin ________.


A) involves low levels of exposure over long periods of time


B) makes it difficult to associate the symptoms with a cause


C) are high exposures over short times and associated with a specific cause


D) is usually untreatable and fatal


E) is the case with chronic alcohol and nicotine abuse

are high exposures over short times and associated with a specific cause

Subsurface mining is used extensively in the extraction of ________.


A) coltan


B) coal, phosphate, diamonds, gold


C) oil sands


D) limestone, natural gas, peat


E) organic soils for landscaping

coal, phosphate, diamonds, gold

The lithosphere consists of ________.


A) the upper mantle and core


B) the uppermost mantle and the continental and oceanic crust


C) the upper part of the asthenosphere


D) soils and vegetation


E) magma and molten metal

the uppermost mantle and the continental and oceanic crust

Many types of mining, such as for coal and copper, produce a specific type of water pollution called ________.


A) eutrophication


B) acid drainage


C) chlorinated pesticides


D) radon gas


E) suspended limestone particles

acid drainage

Bisphenol-A is ________.


A) an estrogen mimic that is used in plastic manufacturing


B) produced when fossil fuels are burned


C) released from aerosol spray cans


D) a currently used herbicide


E) a banned insecticide

an estrogen mimic that is used in plastic manufacturing

Pesticides in the United States are registered through the ________.


A) FDA


B) EPA


C) USDA


D) BLM


E) PRA

EPA

_______ studies are comparisons that track the fate of large groups of people for long periods of time in order to help answer an environmental question.


A) Statistical


B) Epidemiological


C) Animal


D) Case


E) Nobel

Epidemiological

Natural occurring biological hazards to people are ________.


A) crude oil seeps and radon gas


B) DDT and DDE


C) phthalates and bispnenol-A


D) carbon dioxide and nitrogen gas


E) viruses and Salmonella

viruses and Salmonella

Recent research that analyzed the content of commercial bottled water indicates that ________.


A) bottled water has no contamination from hormone mimic plasticizers


B) bottled water is no safer or purer than most samples of tap water


C) bottled water is significantly cheaper than tap water


D) bottled water consumes less fossil fuels in reaching the consumer than does tap water


E) all surveyed brands had information about the source and how it was treated

bottled water is no safer or purer than most samples of tap water

Dams create a _________ from which we can get water for human use.


A) dikes and levees


B) water mining


C) reservoir


D) watershed


E) river

reservoir

Which ocean pollutant can enter the tissues of marine organisms and make fish and shellfish unsafe for us to eat?


A) red tide


B) mercury


C) algae


D) oil


E) phytoplankton

mercury

1. A 2003 study reported that ________% of large-bodied fish and sharks were lost in the first decade of industrialized fishing.


A) 10


B) 20


C) 40


D) 50


E) 90

90

Humans use freshwater primarily for ________.


A) drinking and cooking


B) washing and home use


C) agricultural irrigation


D) electrical production


E) all of these answers

agricultural irrigation

_________ pollution occurs when human activities raise water temperatures.


A) Toxic chemical


B) Sediment


C) Thermal


D) Nutrient


E) Wastewater

Thermal

Why was the irrigation of Soviet cotton farming operations a problem?


A) There was governmental opposition that limited water access, killing crops.


B) Irrigation water came from rivers feeding into one of the largest lakes on Earth and resulted in major contamination of that source.


C) It drained the Aral Sea and increased the salt content of soils.


D) It angered local resort communities, which did not want farming in the region.


E) It was, for the most part, not a problem.

It drained the Aral Sea and increased the salt content of soils.

Which of the following fishing methods involves dragging weighted nets across the ocean floor in an attempt to catch bottommost fish?


A) bycatch


B) driftnets


C) bottom-trawling


D) longline fishing


E) benthic catching

bottom-trawling

What type of farming has led to the destruction of mangroves?


A) sludge


B) cod in order to compensate for overfishing in Canada


C) shrimp farming


D) corn, rice, and wheat, the major grains


E) tuna farming

shrimp farming

Data indicate that the present rate of freshwater consumption in most developed countries is ________.


A) sustainable for the foreseeable future


B) unsustainable


C) irrelevant, as water is not currently limiting


D) only a problem in areas not on the coast


E) increasing groundwater storage and decreasing surface water storage

unsustainable

Which piece of legislation set strict standards for air quality and pollution control?


A) the six criteria pollutants from the EPA.


B) the Clean Air Act


C) the Regional Clean Air Incentives Market or RECLAIM


D) the Montreal Protocol


E) the Federal Water Pollution Control Act

the Clean Air Act

Which of the following layers of the atmosphere is responsible for providing the air that we breathe on Earth?


A) the mesosphere


B) the stratosphere


C) the ozone layer


D) the troposphere


E) the lithosphere

the troposphere

Recent evidence suggests that controlling emissions of this gas would reduce both ozone depletion and global warming ________.


A) carbon dioxide


B) methane


C) carbon monoxide


D) nitrous oxide


E) ammonia

carbon dioxide

The most obvious cause of industrial smog is ________.


A) burning trash


B) fires for heating food


C) indoor air pollution


D) burning fossil fuels


E) generation of nuclear power

burning fossil fuels

A great deal of indoor air pollution comes from ________.


A) outdoor pollution


B) carbon monoxide


C) cooking with natural gas stoves


D) carpets, furniture, paint, and laser printers


E) washing dishes

carpets, furniture, paint, and laser printers

Which of the following is a source of natural air pollution?


A) volcanic eruptions


B) halocarbons


C) smoke stacks


D) industrial smog


E) cigarette smoke

volcanic eruptions

A _____ pollutant interacts with a part of the atmosphere and becomes a _____ pollutant.


A) secondary; primary


B) secondary; criteria


C) primary; secondary


D) indoor; outdoor


E) small; large

primary; secondary

Near the equator, the patterns of convection currents are called ________.


A) Coriolis cells


B) Hadley cells


C) high-pressure cells


D) El Niño events


E) the troposphere

Hadley cells

Weather is best described as ______.


A) layers of cool air forming beneath layers of warmer air


B) the pattern of atmospheric conditions found across large geographic regions over long periods of time


C) atmospheric conditions within small geographic areas over a short period of time


D) stratospheric conditions


E) changes in temperature regionally

atmospheric conditions within small geographic areas over a short period of time

The Coriolis effect contributes to ________.


A) global wind patterns


B) global warming


C) increased acidic deposition


D) a reduction in eutrophication


E) an increase in eutrophication

global wind patterns

Growing rice results in the release of ________ into the atmosphere.


A) methane


B) sulfur oxides


C) ozone


D) carbon dioxide


E) sulfate aerosols

methane

Keeling's reports from Mauna Loa demonstrated ________.


A) an increase in tropospheric CO2 from the 1950s to present


B) that sediments deposited on the seafloor can yield clues about past climates


C) that as distances from cities decreased, CO2 concentrations increased


D) that CO2 levels have been stable over the last 40 years


E) the presence of El Niño

an increase in tropospheric CO2 from the 1950s to present

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ________.


A) constructed the Kyoto Protocol


B) performed the research included in the climate change findings


C) is an international panel that reports on how climate change influences biomes and economies


D) fines companies that pollute


E) could not achieve its objectives because of lack of popular support

is an international panel that reports on how climate change influences biomes and economies

_________ is a type of indirect evidence that can give clues about environmental conditions of the past.


A) climate modeling


B) an anemometer


C) proxy indicator


D) a thermometer


E) a clue collector

proxy indicator

Earth's climate ________.


A) has been stable over the history of the planet


B) is changing as a result of natural and human processes


C) will stabilize over the next century, according to the predictions of most scientists


D) has changed only once due to the evolution of green photosynthesizing plants


E) history is undeterminable because there is no method of studying climatic history of the planet

is changing as a result of natural and human processes

The Kyoto Protocol ________.


A) increased federal funding for controlling greenhouse gas emissions from U.S. power plants


B) required equal concessions from all countries involved in greenhouse gas emission


C) required increases in nuclear power generation


D) would have resulted in overall increases in greenhouse emissions


E) was intended to reduce emissions of six greenhouse gases to levels lower than those of 1990

was intended to reduce emissions of six greenhouse gases to levels lower than those of 1990

Which factors determine Earth's climate?


A) global warming and greenhouse gases


B) the sun, the atmosphere, and the ocean


C) concentrations of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases


D) solar radiation and the thermosphere


E) all of these answers

the sun, the atmosphere, and the ocean

What is the difference between weather and climate?


A) Weather is local and occurs over a short period of time, hours and days, while climate occurs over large geographic areas and longer periods of time such as seasons and years.


B) Weather occurs in the northern hemisphere while climate occurs in the southern hemisphere.


C) Weather occurs over seasons and years while climate occurs over hours and days.


D) Weather and climate are used interchangeably.


E) none of these answers

Weather is local and occurs over a short period of time, hours and days, while climate occurs over large geographic areas and longer periods of time such as seasons and years.

The US Senate has so far opposed emissions reductions on the grounds that ________.


A) no other nations have pledged reductions


B) the US does not emit significant amounts of greenhouse gases


C) President Obama rejected the scientific basis of global climate change


D) it might hurt the economy


E) the US already has reduced its emissions by 68% as agreed in the Copenhagen treaty.

it might hurt the economy

Since the onset of the industrial revolution, global atmospheric concentrations of which of the following gas(es) have shown a great increase?


A) methane and nitrous oxide


B) ozone


C) coal and oil


D) aerosols


E) all of these answers

methane and nitrous oxide

Which of the following produces the largest amount of hazardous waste?


A) industry


B) households


C) agriculture


D) utilities


E) building demolitions

industry

Substances that can harm a human when eaten are called _____.


A) reactive


B) ignitable


C) toxic


D) corrosive


E) all of these answers

toxic

In 2007, San Francisco became the first U.S. city to ban ________.


A) sanitary landfills


B) paper from entering their waste stream


C) non-biodegradable plastic shopping bags


D) e-waste


E) composting

non-biodegradable plastic shopping bags

A materials recovery facility (MRF) is responsible for __________.


A) tracking trash


B) recovering toxic substances


C) decomposition


D) recycling materials


E) preventing materials from entering the waste stream

recycling materials

To safeguard against groundwater contamination, sanitary landfills are ________.


A) located on slopes so water runs downhill


B) lined with plastic and clay


C) lined with cement


D) located in unpopulated areas


E) located on industrial sites where groundwater is not used for drinking or agriculture

lined with plastic and clay

The current state of e-wastes is that ________.


A) only because of the actions of charitable organizations, the recycling rate is 5%


B) although recycling is improved, the rate of e-wastes going into landfills and incinerators is rising


C) because the EPA has classified e-wastes as toxic, more than 95% are being recycled


D) the recycling rate has dropped significantly between 1999 and 2010


E) by EPA mandate, all metals in electronics have been replaced by biodegradable materials

although recycling is improved, the rate of e-wastes going into landfills and incinerators is rising

When we reduce the amount of waste entering the waste stream, it is called __________.


A) source reduction


B) by having waste diverted to a leachate treatment system


C) the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act


D) recycling


E) being awesome

source reduction

RCRA is a U.S. law enacted in the 1970s to ________.


A) reduce environmental levels of the 12 most toxic chemicals, called the "dirty dozen"


B) regulate greenhouse gas emissions from power plants


C) protect endangered species


D) regulate how hazardous waste is handled


E) restrict use of off‑road vehicles in national parks

regulate how hazardous waste is handled

Life‑cycle analysis ________.


A) is an environmental movement designed to reduce municipal traffic and encourage alternative forms of transport


B) defines how different organisms interact within ecosystems


C) examines the cycling of carbon in the environment


D) is the study of statistical changes in the human population


E) examines the life cycle of products for ecological efficiency

examines the life cycle of products for ecological efficiency

Deep-well injection ________.


A) is a method of disposing of hazardous wastes in deep aquifers


B) is a pool of strong acids on the land surface used for breaking down e-waste


C) injects mostly liquid hazardous wastes into porous rock deep beneath human water supplies


D) is the EPA-approved method of disposing of low-level radioactive wastes


E) has been banned as unsafe by the Dept. of the Interior

injects mostly liquid hazardous wastes into porous rock deep beneath human water supplies

The world's urban populations are ________.


A) shrinking, compared to rural populations


B) growing faster than the population as a whole


C) growing at about the same rate as the rural populations


D) growing most rapidly in the developed nations


E) shrinking in developed nations

growing faster than the population as a whole

The urban heat island effect is caused by ________.


A) green buildings


B) heat-generating buildings and dark, heat-absorbing surfaces


C) nuclear power plants venting excess heat into the urban landscape


D) street lighting and burning of wastes in landfills


E) air warmed over adjacent oceans blowing into urban areas

heat-generating buildings and dark, heat-absorbing surfaces

People who seek to improve resource sustainability of our cities urge us to ________.


A) maintain a steady pattern of growth and development


B) use zoning and taxation to promote livable cities


C) oppose strict limits on growth (UGBs)


D) use renewable energy sources and recycle materials


E) none of these answers

use renewable energy sources and recycle materials

The greatest general problem with suburbs is ________.


A) high population density


B) lack of resources


C) that they spread environmental impact over a larger area


D) decreased water quality


E) lack of nearby shopping

that they spread environmental impact over a larger area

The ecological footprint of a large city is ________ than/as the surrounding rural area.


A) much lower


B) slightly lower


C) about the same size


D) slightly higher


E) much higher

much higher

What does UGB refer to in city planning?


A) urban growth boundary


B) uncentered vs. scattered development


C) the trend to move from cities to farms


D) a way to deal with zoning


E) the addition of bike paths

urban growth boundary

Throughout history, all cities have ________.


A) been self-sustaining in food production


B) had disagreements with the rural areas surrounding them


C) destroyed the rural areas surrounding them through conquest or politics


D) drawn resources from surrounding areas by trade, persuasion, or conquest


E) been major sources of labor for the rural areas surrounding them

drawn resources from surrounding areas by trade, persuasion, or conquest

_____ classifies areas for different types of land use.


A) Sprawl


B) Smart growth


C) Zoning


D) Urban growth boundaries


E) Ecological barriers

Zoning

What is a light rail system?


A) LEED-platinum building


B) a smaller, public rail system powered by electricity


C) a type of green building


D) solar powered panels


E) a new postal service

a smaller, public rail system powered by electricity

A type of toxicant that can cause cancer is termed _______.


A) a carcinogen
B) a neurotoxin
C) DDT
D) an endocrine disruptor
E) a phthalate

a carcinogen

The worldwide drop in sperm counts among men has been attributed to ________.


A) DDT
B) endocrine disruptors
C) teratogens
D) radon
E) allergens

endocrine disruptors

_______ studies are comparisons that track the fate of large groups of people for long periods of time in order to help answer an environmental question.


A) Statistical
B) Epidemiological
C) Animal
D) Case
E) Nobel

Epidemiological

Cigarette smoke and radon are two of the most common _______ hazards.


A) bioindicators
B) indoor
C) outdoor
D) biological
E) allergic

indoor

How is it that even pristine areas, undisturbed by humans, have been contaminated with human-generated toxicants?


A) The toxicants are naturally found in the earth.
B) The toxicants are physically brought by humans to help farming and industry in the pristine areas.
C) The toxicants are carried by the wind or water.
D) Toxicants are generally not found in pristine areas.
E) All of these answers

The toxicants are carried by the wind or water.

Which is the best approach to sustainable mineral use?


A) by encouraging recycling of non-renewable resources
B) by reforming the 1872 mining law
C) because minerals are renewable resources, sustainability should not be an issue
D) by harnessing e-waste
E) all of these answers

by encouraging recycling of non-renewable resources

The Toxic Substances Control Act regulates ________.


A) industrial chemicals
B) drugs
C) pesticides
D) food additives
E) cosmetics

industrial chemicals

The Pacific "ring of fire" is a volcanic area where ________.


A) there is a great deal of mass wasting
B) sedimentary rock is being formed from igneous rock
C) pyroclastic flow has caused landslides
D) there are many earthquakes and active plate boundaries
E) there is severe coastal erosion

there are many earthquakes and active plate boundaries

If a mineral is opaque, lustrous, malleable and can conduct heat and electricity, it is a(n) ________.


A) element
B) gemstone
C) radioactive element
D) metal
E) crystal

metal

________ are best defined as substances that cause birth defects.


A) allergens
B) teratogens
C) carcinogens
D) neurotoxins
E) vectors

teratogens

Carcinogens may be difficult to identify because ________.


A) they are the least common toxicants
B) there is a long lag time between exposure to the agent and disease
C) they are rare in nature
D) there is no way to measure the carcinogenic potential of a substance
E) most are invisible

there is a long lag time between exposure to the agent and disease

_______ is (are) the quantitative description of the likelihood of a given outcome.


A) ED50
B) LD50
C) Synergistic effects
D) Probability
E) Data

Probability

Risk _______ include(s) decisions and strategies that will minimize risk.


A) OSHA
B) management
C) outcomes
D) assessment
E) strategy

management

The bald eagle, osprey, and peregrine falcon all are ________.


A) found only in Florida
B) U.S. invasive species
C) over-hunted for their feathers
D) extinct
E) top consumers susceptible to eggshell damage caused by DDT

top consumers susceptible to eggshell damage caused by DDT

The newest trend for recycling scarce and toxic metals is to recover them from ________.


A) car batteries
B) construction dump sites
C) landfills from the 1960s
D) e-wastes
E) compact discs, LPs and 8-track tapes

e-wastes

One-fifth of Earth's total freshwater supply is in ________.


A) ponds
B) the ocean
C) groundwater
D) estuaries
E) the tundra

groundwater

What percentage of Earth's water is available for drinking and irrigation?


A) 100%
B) 97.5%
C) 71%
D) 15.5%
E) 2.5%

2.5%

Overpumping groundwater in coastal areas can cause ________ to move into aquifers, making the water undrinkable.


A) VOCs
B) suspended solids
C) hard water ions
D) untreated sewage
E) salt water

salt water

Which of the following is one of the major pollutants of groundwater?


A) acid rain
B) treated sewage from cities
C) fertilizers from agricultural fields
D) carbon dioxide
E) home garbage

fertilizers from agricultural fields

Humans use freshwater primarily for ________.


A) drinking and cooking
B) washing and home use
C) agricultural irrigation
D) electrical production
E) all of these answers

agricultural irrigation

Currently, the greatest ecological crisis facing marine food webs is ________.


A) radiation
B) oil spills
C) plastic dumping
D) overharvesting
E) abandoned fishing nets

overharvesting

What percentage of Earth's surface is ocean?


A) 100%
B) 96.5%
C) 71%
D) 15.5%
E) 2.5%

71%

The huge dust storms that took place in the US mid-west in the 1930s ________.


A) were triggered by tornadoes, worsened by global climate change
B) were the result of polar cells
C) were the result of poor farming and grazing techniques
D) were the result of glacier melt
E) were the result of ozone depletion

were the result of poor farming and grazing techniques

Which of the following is an unhealthy mixture of pollutants that forms over cities?


A) the thermosphere
B) Hadley convective cells
C) smog
D) ozone depleting substances
E) dry deposition

smog

Reports from the _____ are the most widely accepted information published on climate change.


A) U.S. Mayors Climate Protection Agreement
B) Kyoto Protocol
C) Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
D) Montreal Protocol
E) U.S. Government

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

Carbon dioxide is ________.


A) the most potent (per molecule of gas) of the greenhouse gases
B) the most abundant greenhouse gas
C) more potent (per molecule of gas) than methane
D) the main anthropogenic greenhouse gas produced in the United States
E) the only greenhouse gas presently increasing in the atmosphere

the main anthropogenic greenhouse gas produced in the United States

Since the onset of the industrial revolution, global atmospheric concentrations of which of the following gas(es) have shown a great increase?


A) methane and nitrous oxide
B) ozone
C) coal and oil
D) aerosols
E) all of these answers

methane and nitrous oxide

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ________.


A) constructed the Kyoto Protocol
B) performed the research included in the climate change findings
C) is an international panel that reports on how climate change influences biomes and economies
D) fines companies that pollute
E) could not achieve its objectives because of lack of popular support

is an international panel that reports on how climate change influences biomes and economies

Keeling's reports from Mauna Loa demonstrated ________.


A) an increase in tropospheric CO2 from the 1950s to present
B) that sediments deposited on the seafloor can yield clues about past climates
C) that as distances from cities decreased, CO2 concentrations increased
D) that CO2 levels have been stable over the last 40 years
E) the presence of El Niño

an increase in tropospheric CO2 from the 1950s to present

How long have we been making direct measurements of carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere?


A) since we developed the ability to read proxy indicators
B) since we began drilling and analyzing ice core samples
C) since hourly air samples were recorded from a monitoring station in Hawaii in 1958
D) since we developed climate models and computer systems to analyze them
E) we do not take direct measurements of carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere

since hourly air samples were recorded from a monitoring station in Hawaii in 1958


The process of _____ turns crude oil into the type of gases that can be used for cooking, in cars, and for other human purposes.


A) exploratory drilling
B) refining
C) primary extraction
D) secondary extraction
E) none of these answers



refining

Which of the following characterizes U.S. nuclear power plants?


A) largely unregulated
B) highly subsidized
C) widely trusted and accepted by the public
D) account for nearly half of domestic energy production
E) inexpensive to operate

highly subsidized

The world's most abundant fossil fuel is ________.


A) biodiesel
B) coal
C) oil
D) natural gas
E) methane

coal

What is bitumen?


A) the term interchangeable with kerogen
B) a thick type of petroleum formed in clay and sand
C) a Hubbert prediction
D) methane ice
E) a small piece of something

a thick type of petroleum formed in clay and sand

When we burn fossil fuels, ________.


A) we liberate carbon back into the carbon cycle, increasing the amount available for plant growth
B) the resulting carbonic acid leads to acid rain
C) the greatest environmental impact is the impact on the ozone layer
D) the greatest environmental impact is increased greenhouse gases
E) the greatest environmental impact is the local damage from extraction

the greatest environmental impact is increased greenhouse gases

Electricity derived from fossil fuel is a _____ form of energy.


A) secondary
B) renewable
C) primary
D) perpetually renewable
E) random

secondary

U.S. oil production ________.


A) falls far short of U.S. oil consumption
B) is sufficient to meet national needs thanks to major conservation efforts
C) will peak out in 2100, requiring for the first time imports to meet growing demand
D) is now high enough for us to export nearly 50%
E) has to fit the quotas imposed by OPEC

falls far short of U.S. oil consumption

The oil spill resulting from the 2010 Deepwater Horizon disaster ________.


A) is considered a minor incident compared to other oil spills
B) is the worst oil spill in US history, causing damage to marine and coastal ecosystems
C) resulted in a permanent ban on all offshore drilling in US coastal waters
D) eclipsed all non-point oil spills by 500%
E) was quickly cleaned up preventing loss of wildlife and damage to fisheries

is the worst oil spill in US history, causing damage to marine and coastal ecosystems

Which of the following energy sources is considered nonrenewable?


A) fossil fuel energy
B) sunlight (solar) energy
C) geothermal energy
D) tidal energy
E) wind energy

fossil fuel energy

Energy conservation in the United States ________.


A) can be accomplished only through changes in environmental laws
B) is unlikely to ever occur
C) can be accomplished by changes in tax laws
D) will be a reality only if there is another major war
E) can be improved as individuals make conscious choices to reduce personal consumption


can be improved as individuals make conscious choices to reduce personal consumption

How did the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) flex their oil muscles to the U.S.?


A) by fighting the embargo the U.S. placed on foreign oil.
B) by flooding the U.S. with oil and the prices would drop just before restricting supplies.
C) by refusing to sell the U.S. oil.
D) by predicting the U.S. oil production would peak in 1970.
E) by challenging the U.S. to a dual.

by refusing to sell the U.S. oil.

The three fossil fuels that we use today to meet our energy needs are __________.


A) crude oil, hydropower, and geothermal energy
B) coal, natural gas, and crude oil
C) electricity, crude oil, and hydropower
D) coal, natural gas, and electricity
E) solar, wind, hydropower

coal, natural gas, and crude oil

The average miles per gallon rating of U.S. vehicles has ________.


A) doubled in the past two decades
B) made no improvement the past two decades
C) now matched the 45 mpg rating mandated by the European union
D) been raised to 40 mpg because of the 2010 energy bill passed by Congress
E) doubled since the 2008 election

made no improvement the past two decades

Nuclear power plants ________.


A) were first developed commercially in the early 1990s
B) experienced the most growth during the 1970s and 1980s
C) produce no waste byproducts
D) supply most of U.S. electricity
E) produce more greenhouse gas emissions than burning fossil fuels


experienced the most growth during the 1970s and 1980s

Coal continues to be the main fuel used to generate electricity in the United States. This is partially because ________.


A) the country has such large reserves of coal
B) the quality of coal in the United States is very consistent from deposit to deposit
C) coal causes almost no air pollution when burned
D) coal deposits in the United States lie very close to the surface and are easily extracted
E) compared to natural gas and oil, coal contains very few impurities, such as sulfur

the country has such large reserves of coal

Biofuels ________.


A) can be created by microbial action or burned directly as wood or dung
B) require fossil fuel input to produce
C) produce no greenhouse gases when burned
D) could not supply an alternative fuel to gasoline
E) are a form of fossil fuel

can be created by microbial action or burned directly as wood or dung

Ground-source heat pumps ________.


A) are an increasing source of small-scale electricity generation
B) have been known to cause minor earthquakes
C) produce pollution of ground water
D) require nearby volcanic activity to be effective
E) heat and cool houses and buildings more efficiently than conventional methods


heat and cool houses and buildings more efficiently than conventional methods

The rotational energy of the blades of a wind turbine ________.


A) drives a generator inside the nacelle compartment to produce electricity
B) is used to generate hydrogen from water
C) will not occur unless electricity is provided to generate the motion
D) is so expensive to produce that no commercial development has been possible
E) generates as much greenhouse gases as burning natural gas

drives a generator inside the nacelle compartment to produce electricity

The run-of-river approach to hydropower describes ________.


A) impounding water in reservoirs behind concrete dams
B) the purchase of state-run dams by major corporations
C) dams that are reliable but unsustainable
D) the most expensive type of dams to build and maintain
E) diversion of a portion of a river's flow through pipes

diversion of a portion of a river's flow through pipesdiversion of a portion of a river's flow through pipes

________ strongly influences the amount of energy generated from hydropower.


A) The temperature of reservoir water
B) Latitude
C) The phase of the moon
D) The volume of water released and the height of the fall
E) The temperature of water in the boiler and turbine


The volume of water released and the height of the fall

What is a "feed-in tariff" system?


A) one in which energy companies pay citizens who add power to the grid
B) one in which the government pays energy companies to supply energy to people during blackouts
C) one in which the government pays energy companies to supply food to the poor
D) one in which energy companies charge less for power to those who work in "green-collar jobs"
E) all of these answers

one in which energy companies pay citizens who add power to the grid

Solar panels with flat-plate solar collectors are an example of __________.


A) active solar power
B) a renewable fossil fuel
C) conventional renewable energy
D) passive solar power
E) a similar technology to wind turbines

active solar power

Hydropower uses the _____ energy of water to generate electricity.


A) potential
B) awesome
C) nuclear
D) thermal
E) kinetic

kinetic

More and more wind farms are being located ________ because winds are stronger there.


A) in densely populated urban areas
B) offshore
C) in deserts
D) in the arctic
E) in mature forests

offshore

When biomass is combined with coal and burned in a high efficiency boiler, it is called __________.


A) syngas
B) co-firing
C) gasification
D) pyrolysis
E) synapse

co-firing

Harnessing energy by designing buildings to maximize or minimize the absorption of incident solar radiation are ________.


A) active solar energy collection
B) passive solar energy collection
C) Concentrated solar power (CSP) devices
D) photovoltaic cell collectors
E) hydrogen fuel-cell collectors

passive solar energy collection

Which of the following are documented negative impacts of dams?


A) flooding, habitat destruction, alteration of river sediment deposition
B) alteration of river salinity
C) acid deposition
D) increased atmospheric carbon dioxide and CFCs
E) increased carbon monoxide emissions, decreased rainfall

flooding, habitat destruction, alteration of river sediment deposition

________ strongly influences the amount of energy generated from hydropower.


A) The temperature of reservoir water
B) Latitude
C) The phase of the moon
D) The volume of water released and the height of the fall
E) The temperature of water in the boiler and turbine

The volume of water released and the height of the fall

The best solution to the solid waste problem is to ________.


A) increase the number of WTE facilities
B) increase the number of sanitary landfills
C) reduce the amount of material that enters the waste stream
D) subsidize WTE facilities
E) increase the number of oceanic burial sites

reduce the amount of material that enters the waste stream

The average American produces how much trash per day?


A) 0 pounds
B) 4.3 pounds
C) 28.2 pounds
D) 1,500 pounds
E) 243 million tons

4.3 pounds

Industrial ecologists ________.


A) favor an economy that moves linearly rather than circularly
B) advocate taxes on green industries
C) redesign industrial systems to minimize physical inefficiency and maximize economic efficiency
D) urge an emphasis on internal manufacturing costs rather than external costs
E) primarily analyze industrial inputs

redesign industrial systems to minimize physical inefficiency and maximize economic efficiency

Heavy metals ________.


A) become less hazardous after incineration
B) become less hazardous over time as they degrade chemically
C) are unregulated by the U.S. government
D) bioaccumulate in animal tissues
E) are not harmful unless they are directly ingested

bioaccumulate in animal tissues

Recycling aluminum cans saves ________% of the energy needed to make the same amount of aluminum from virgin bauxite.


A) 95
B) 70
C) 50
D) 25
E) 15

95

People who live entirely within an urban environment ________.


A) have too many luxury goods at too expensive a price
B) are never provided enough quality housing, even for those who can afford it
C) may become disconnected from nature and from the true costs of their needs and activities
D) have insufficient choices for activities and lifestyles
E) pay less for food and gasoline than rural areas


may become disconnected from nature and from the true costs of their needs and activities

A resource sink is ________.


A) an area that produces almost none of the things that it needs
B) an area that is able to trade for all of the things that it needs
C) an area that produces many things and needs to export them to a variety of places
D) an area that produces a single resource and can control the price of that commodity or service
E) a resource that is desirable, such that different cities must compete to obtain enough of it for their citizens


an area that produces almost none of the things that it needs

Around the world, most major cities are situated ________.


A) at elevations above 500 m.
B) near mountains, usually in a valley
C) on the more northern continents
D) along rivers, oceans, roads, or train routes
E) in agricultural areas

along rivers, oceans, roads, or train routes

In developing nations, such as India and Nigeria, ________.


A) most of the population is moving to the suburbs from the city centers
B) very little change has occurred in the past 40 years regarding where people live
C) small numbers of people have moved into the cities
D) rural people are moving to the cities in large numbers
E) more people are moving to the suburbs than to the city centers

rural people are moving to the cities in large numbers

American cities in the northern United States, such as Chicago, Illinois, ________.


A) have steadily lost population over the past 40 years
B) had their greatest populations in the 19th and early 20th centuries
C) have always grown rapidly and continue to do so
D) have maintained a steady state population since the 1970s
E) have increased their rate of growth dramatically in the past 20 years

have steadily lost population over the past 40 years