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78 Cards in this Set

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Describe the layers of the Earth

-Core: Inner is solid. Outer is fluid & contains iron magnetic field


-Mantle: Includes asthenosphere


-Crust: Continental crust (25 miles of granite). Oceanic crust is 71% of crust ( 6-7 miles of thick basalt)



Difference between the lithosphere and the asthenosphere

-Lithosphere is crust, rigid, and outermost part of mantle ( Above asthenosphere)


-All plates move on top of asthenosphere



Describe the three different types of plate boundaries

-Divergent: move apart in opposite directions


-Convergent: plates pushed together forming a trench (earthquakes and volcanoes)


-Transform:Plates move in opposite directions but parallel (slide past each other)

What is subduction

One plate is pushed downward below another plate

Describe the three major types of rocks

-Metamorphic: rock is exposed to high temperature and high pressure


-Igneous: forms below Earth's surface


- Sedimentary: sedimentation of material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water

Metallic and nonmetallic resources

-Metallic: reflect light (shiny). Aluminum, iron, and copper


-Nonmetallic: do not reflect light ( not shiny). Sand, gravel, and limestone

What are spoil, gangue, and tailings

-Spoil: deposits of rock left close to a mine site


- Gangue: waste material of economically important rock ( no value)


-Tailings: unused material after dredged from a stream

Four types of surface mining

-Strip mining: minerals close to the surface


-Open pit mining: dig hole


-Contour mining: coal-hills or mountains- cut terrace


-Mountain top removal

Large waves generated in the ocean by an earthquake, landslide, or volcanic activity are called

tsunamis

Who has the world's largest coal reserves?

United states

Wort volcano is US history? The world?

Mount St. Helens


Mt.Pinatubo

Why has nuclear power declined in the United States?

Decrease in the amount of uranium

Why does oil have a high net energy ratio?

It is cheap to extract deposits

The slowest of the earth's cyclic processes is the

Rock cycle

The most commonly used nonmetallic metals are

sand and gravel

Who are the three largest users of fossil fuels

US, European Union, and Russia

What type of energy source is nuclear power

non-renewable resource

Most and least energy efficient

Most: passive solar heating


Least: incandescent light bulbs

One weakness of the electric car

energy storage system

In 2004, which energy sources represented the highest total cost of producing electricity?

solar cells

Examples of renewable energy sources

Sun, wind, biomass, water

Windows designed for capturing solar energy should face what direction?

South

What are some advantages os solar space heating?

Free energy source, No CO2 emissions in the atmosphere

Explain a solar thermal system

Track the sun, run turbines, focus sun on heat collection point

Pro of solar power plants

Can be built as small or large as needed

Cells that convert solar energy directly into electricity are called

photvoltaic

What is one disadvantage of hydroelectric plants?

-Expensive


-Dams decrease biodiversity


-Clean up built up sediment

The world's fastest growing energy resource is

Solar energy

What is an advantage of using wind power

Unlimited

Which fossil fuel has the least environmental impact

natural gas

Sequence of layers of the atmosphere (innermost to outermost)

Troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermoshpere

The atmosphere is divided into layers by

temperature changes

the atmospheric layer containing 75% of the mass of earth's air is the

troposphere

Most of earth's weather occurs in which layer?

troposphere

What is the job of the stratospheric ozone layer?

filter out UV light

One in every _ person lives in urban areas with air that is unhealthy to breathe

6

What are VOCs? Examples?

Carbon based chemicals that are easily evaporated from solids and liquids.


-Methane, benzene

Harmful chemicals emitted directly into the air from natural processes and human activities are called

primary pollutants

Photochemical smog is formed when primary pollutants interact with

Sunlight

What is temperature inversion?

Lid of warmer air on top of cooler air

What are the four most dangerous indoor air pollutants?

asbestos, radon, cigarette smoke, formaldehyde

What is a product of uranium decay and an indoor air pollutant?

radioactive radon

what is the leading cause of water pollution?

agriculture

a 100 milliliter sample of water should contain_ colonies of coliform bacteria

0

What is a point source of water pollution?

identifiable source


-treatment plants

What is a non-point source of water pollution?

unidentified source


-fertilizers, urban runoff

What causes an oxygen sag curve?

When oxygen demanding wastes are added to water

What is eutrophication?

natural nutrient enrichment of lakes and streams

Why can't contaminated groundwater cleanse itself?

cold water slows down reactions

What is the most effective way to protect groundwater

prevent contamination

The root cause of food insecurity

poverty

Top three most important food crops

sugarcane, rice, corn

What type of agriculture is most characteristic of developing countries

traditional subsistence

The major goal of industrialized agriculture for any crop has been to steadily increase its

yield

Slash and burn agriculture is a type of

traditional subsistence agriculture

Industrialized agriculture requires large inputs of

money, water, fossil fuels

Why is there a decline in the World Grain Carryover Stock?

increased ethanol production, increased temperature, feeding more livestock

Which soil horizon is considered topsoil?

A

A second green revolution has been taking place since 1967, based on

fast growing rice and wheat

What is desertification

expanasion of dry lands due to poor agricultural practices

Repeated irrigation in dry climates leads to soil degradation of the uppers called

salinization

What is conservation tillage?

leaving the previous year's crops on the field( reduces soil erosion and runoff)

Order of soil textures (largest to smallest)

Gravel, sand, silt, clay

What important environmental benefits do ecosystems provide?

Breakdown of toxic material and clean water

What clause stated that no food additive shall be considered safe if it is found to induce cancer when ingested by man or animal?

The Delaney Clause

Approximately 70% of the world's electronic waste ends up

shipped to China

Wastes that includes paper, food wastes, cans, bottles, yard wastes, glass, wood, and similar items is called

municipal waste

With 4.6% of the world's population, the United States produces about_ of the world's solid waste

1/3

What is waste management?

reducing environmental impact without reducing the amount of waste produced

The recycling and composting rate of US municipal solid waste is about

32%

The most energy efficient beverage container on the market is

glass

What is compost?

soil conditioner and organic fertilizer

Consumers of recycled products are most effective when they maximize the amount of

post consumer waste in the products

Partially biodegradable plastics need what to be broken down?

oxygen and moisture

The top priority when dealing with hazardous waste should be

pollution prevention and waste reduction

What are some ways to detoxifying hazardous and toxic wastes?

phyto-remediation, bioremediation, nano-magnets, chemical methods

What is phyto- remediation?

using plants to remove toxic waste

What principles contribute to a transition to a low waste society?

No away, dilution is not the solution, reduce reuse recycle, everything is connected