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78 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
This soil horizon contains mostly leaf litter
This soil horizon contains top soil
This soil horizon contains sub soil
This soil horizon sometimes comes between A and B
This soil horizon contains bedrock
This soil horizon is a zone of leaching and it looks white.
this soil horizon is found mostly in mature, oild soils which have been undisturbed for at least a century
this is when nutrients and water first break the surface of soil
this is when water moves farther down into soil
this is when minerals and metals move down through the soil
this is a mixture of soil size particles
this type of soil is separated into easily seen grains
coarse sand
in this, grains can be seen and felt
in this, can't see grains
this interacts with everything and feels sticky
thisis a measure of volume of pores (spaces) per colume of soil and average distance between those spaces.
this is the most porous soil type
this is the ability of water or air to move down in soil
this has high permeability, this has low
sand, clay
this soil structure drains water the best
this is the worst draining soil structure. it's found at the bottom of lakes, puddles, etc
this is created by tilling at the same depth every year. it can be as hard as concrete
this is the ability to cultivate of a soil
this effects the uptake of any nutrient. but esp nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium
this speeds up the decomposition of organic matter
this is the organic content of soil
in this type of soil, plants take up toxic metals. they die of toxicity
the two main agents of soil erosion are
water and wind
anything removing vegetation increased ---
this is when surgace water moves down a slope across a field in a wide flow and peels off uniform sheets of soil. it's hard to detect b/c it's so uniform
sheet erosion
this is the most common form of erosion. soil is removed by water from little streamlets running through land with poor surgace draining. often found between crop rows
rill erosion
larger than rills and can't be fixed by tillage
gully erosion
in this, water erosion is prevented by placing large stone on soil
rip rap
this is a best management practive to stop erosion. you cover large areas with ash and cinders
crush and run
farm erosion is ---x to---x faster than renewal rate. in this sense, soil is a nonrenewable resource
this creates the highest rates of erosion
this is when land is plowed and soil turned by a v shapedplow. it's done in fall and erodes in winter and early spring before planting. due harsh winter climate
conventional tillage farming
this is land tillage which breaks and loosens subsurface soil without turning topsoil over.
conservative tillage
this is a form of tilling which merely slices through soil without moving it around.
machines inject seeds, fertilizers, and weed killers into slits of unplowed soil
no till farming
a series of broad steps built so they run across the contour of land reducing runoff and retaining water
terracing on slopes
this is planting and plowing in rows across at perpindicular angles rather than up and down a slope. each row acts as a small dam
contour farming
planting a row of crops like corn alternating in strips with another crop that covers the soil
strip cropping (intercropping)
trees and crops planted together
ally cropping (agroforestry)
on sloping land, quick growing plants can be grown to fix this
gully reclamation
channels can be built to redirect flow of water to areas that drain better to fix this
gully reclamation
these reduce win erosion, provide wood fuel and habitat for birds
wind breaks/ shelterbeds
this has been added to irrigation water which binds to positively charged clay particles and increases the cohesiveness of clay particles
PAM- polyacrylamide
this is an organic manure, fresh vegetation turned into the soil
green manure
this is grass clippings, weeds, animal manure, kitchen scraps, dead leaves, hay, straw, sawdust, topsoil
state of the art landfills accept waste for this long
10 to 40 years
owners maintain landfills for this long after closing them
30 years
local fills are now being replaced by larger
regional landfills
large undergound facility built to permanently store materials
out of sight hazardous waste disposal
2 story building with no wastes on the first floor
in sight hazmat management
this substance bioaccumulates. 10% is excreted, but the rest remains in your bones l
this is a neurotoxin and affects everythign nerve related
these are a family of chlorinated hydrocarbons formed as by products of chemical reactions. persistent in soil and fat tissues
these, also known as these, are carcinogens, but don't damage DNA directly. they promote other carcinogens, thus causing a variety of cancers rather than one type
TCDD, or dioxins
this act was passed in 1976 and created the EPA. it identified and set hazardous waste management
RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act)
this Act also provides financial aid for states that establish waste management programs
this reguires companies that store, treat, or dispose of 220 lbs of hazardous wastes per month. they must have a permit stating how they are managed, and keep a cradle to grave log of point of origin to approved offsite disposal
created in 1980, this, also known as this, established a federal and state tax fund of 16.3 billion to ID and clean up abandoned hazardous waste sites.
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (Superfund Act)
nuclear power started to use because of --- movement
atoms for peace
this is the kind of reactor shearon harris is
PWR (Pressurized Water REactor)
PWR use --- neutrons, because they are more likely to fission U 235
heavy water
how many rods per fuel assembly?
this can be moved up or down over the fuel assembly to effect the rate of neutron absorption
control rod
these keep fuel assemblies from interacting with each other, thereby avoiding nuclear explosions
control rods
the core
reactor vessel where reactors are housed
this is also in the reactor vessel
primary cooling system
gravity pools
foolproof emergency cooling system
boiling water reactor
this uses the same concept as a PWR, but uses control rods at the bottom of a reactor
this type of reactor has no cooling tower, instead using a lake
this is cheaper than a PWR
containment buildings are made of 3-5 inch thick walls made of this
steel, plus several feet of concrete