# String Theory Essay

1975 Words 8 Pages
Special Relativity

The speed of light is the speed limit for the universe. Light travels at the same speed regardless of relative position. When applied to Newtonian physics, it provided new relativistic formulas for motion. 4

Quantum Theory

Hot objects emit electromagnetic radiation. If the energy carried off by radiation is added together, the total energy produced is calculated to be infinite. Max Planck deduced that if energy was emitted in discrete packets, quanta, it would be a finite quanity of energy. Radiation of frequency v comes in quanta of energy E = hv where h is Planck's constant . Photons are the quanta of light. This began the idea of wave-particle duality and quantum mechanics. 4

Quantum Mechanics
It allows the construction of gauge theories characterized by Lie group symmetry structure. Of these theories, the Standard Model is based on the Lie group SU(3)xSU(2)xU(1) . 4

Kaluza-Klein Theory

A dimension is either large and directly observable or small and practically invisible. Present particle accelerators can only observe to about 10^(-18)m, so any curled-up dimensions smaller than that are currenly unobservable. The properties of these curled-up dimensions determines the properties of the elementary particles. 1

Problems with the Standard Model Special relativity unified electricity and magnetism into the electromagnetic force. Glashow, Salam, and Weinberg unified the electromagnetic force and weak force into the electroweak force. Extrapolation of present experimental data predicts that the behavior of the electroweak force and the strong force will become the same around 10^16 GeV .This results in the standard model, successfully incorporating the Lie groups SU(3)xSU(2)xU(1). But where is gravity in all of this? Gravity is expected to play a role at higher energies such as 10^19 GeV; this energy scale is the Planck Mass 3. The problem is, the relationship between these forces is not known. The two theories, general relativity and the standard model's quantum field theory, are incompatible. The renormalizations that normally occur in the equations are not present 4. For example, the

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