Investigation into the Digestion of Milk by Trypsin Essay

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Investigation into the Digestion of Milk by Trypsin

Background Knowledge ====================

To investigate the effect of trypsin on milk a number of separate experiments will be performed whereby milk is digested by trypsin under controlled conditions. Specific variables will be changed by calculated amounts to gauge their individual effects on the rate and amount of reaction that occurs.

Trypsin is a biological catalyst, (a substance that speed up a reaction without being used up or changing the reaction in any way), known as an enzyme that is found in the human body. Trypsin is a protease enzyme, which means that it digests the proteins in food that is consumed. However humans,
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As contact is needed for enzymes to react with substrates the impact theory, (which states that reactions occur when substances bump into each other) suggests that the higher the temperatures at which substances are left to react with each other, the greater the chance of reaction, therefore the faster the rate of reaction. This however is only true to a certain level, as after a point enzymes denature. Denaturing is when the enzyme, due to it being formed of proteins reaches a temperature where it can no longer hold its shape and it warps so that it no longer fits the substrate it is supposed to react with. In the case of most enzymes this occurs at around 50oC.

Enzymes are all designed to operate best at a specific temperature. For example enzymes in the human body such as trypsin operate best at around 37 degrees, as this is the average temperature of the human body. The temperature at which enzymes work best at is known as the optimum temperature. Enzymes are also seen to work best at specific pH levels. Enzymes in the stomach work best at a low pH, as this is the level familiar to the environment they work in. The pH at which an enzyme works best at is known at its optimum pH level.

When levels of temperature and pH are varied it can be observed that the rate of reaction changes. This shows how these factors, (like many others) can be varied

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