Essay on Defining Martyrdom

2019 Words 9 Pages
In the mid 1700s, Pope Benedict XIV defined martyrdom and outlined the characteristics of martyr. According to the Pope, a martyr is a “believer who dies for the faith and, specifically, who’s killer (the “tyrant”) … must have been motivated by hatred of the faith” (Peterson, 93). Additionally, it is not sufficient for a martyr to simply die for a cause; rather he must have been observed, as someone who refused to recant is belief. In other words, people as someone who chose to uphold his beliefs despite the dire consequences he would face otherwise must have physically observed a martyr. Another criterion is that a martyr must have been seen as saying something along the lines of turning my soul to God or giving up my life for Christ …show more content…
Hopper was influenced by Zwingli’s works on St.Paul’s epistles and eventually moved to Zurich. In Zurich, Hooper published countless works and then moved back to England. In England, Hooper became one of the most influential Protestants in England and had the support of John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland. Eventually, Hooper was offered to become the Bishop of Gloucester and Worcester. However, this led to a controversy known as the vestment controversy because Hooper had condemned the clothing that is to be worn by clergy at the ordination ceremony. Hooper questioned the validity of these garments in making the religious officials different from the public and asserted that these clothing’s were not mentioned in the Bible (Foxe, 56). Hooper felt that these “trifles tended more to superstition than otherwise” (Foxe, 57). In other words, Hooper felt that elegant clothing deviates us from getting closer to the God and takes us to a world of materialism. As a result, Hooper denied this position, but in doing so he defied the Act of Uniformity. The Act of Uniformity stated that a bishop can deny their position only if they have a valid justification. If this act were violated then it would be seen as an insult of the state and of the king of England. However, a compromise was reached in which it was decided that all of the clergy could wear vestments

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