Data Analysis Procedures Essay

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2.4 Data Analysis Procedures
Data analysis is the process of bringing order, structure and meaning to the mass of collected data. It is described as messy, ambiguous, time-consuming, creative, and fascinating process but does not proceed in a linear fashion (Marshall and Rossman 1989, p. 112).

Data in this study will be analysed using a qualitative content analysis procedure. Hsieh and Shannon (2005, p. 1278) defined qualitative content analysis as a research method for subjective interpretation of the content of text data through systematic classification process of coding and identifying themes or patterns. Based on the procedure suggested by Zhang and Wildemuth (2009), the first step is to prepare the data by transforming the
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A visual display such as boxes, hierarchical tree or comparison table/matrix of the findings can be constructed to present the construction of the meanings. The drawing of the conclusions involved exploring properties and dimensions of the themes/categories, identifying their relationships and patterns and testing the categories against full range of data. 2.5 Methods for Verification
In this section the author will discuss briefly on the issues of validity and reliability of my proposed research. Most qualitative researchers accept the principles of validity and reliability. However the use of the terms is infrequent and there is no single stance or consensus on addressing validity and reliability in qualitative studies (Creswell 1994, Neuman 2003). Hence there is no excuse not to address validity and reliability in the proposed study. It was suggested that the concepts of validity and reliability should be address in a qualitative plan. It should be framed within the procedures that emerged from qualitative writings (Miles and Huberman 1984, Merriam 1988, Creswell 1994).

In ensuring validity and reliability, the researcher plan to employ several strategies suggested by Creswell (1994). First, is the triangulation of data. Data is going to be collected through interviews, observations and written documents. Second, is member checking whereby the informant will serve as

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