This article by Rigby & Rump (1982) wanted to measure attitudes toward institutional authorities and personality traits in relation to authoritarianism. Taken place at the Institute of Technology in South Australia and University of Adelaide, students were given questionnaires measuring their feelings and altitudes toward teachers, police, law, army, symbolic authority; and to test their conforming to authority. Additionally, students were given personality tests that were relevant to authoritarianism: “intolerance of ambiguity, tolerance of complexity, dogmatism, cognitive simplicity, creative independence, and emotional activation” (p. 61). The researcher’s results were the following: “two oblique factors were found, representing
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“People have a tendency to obey trusted authority-figures against their own better judgment, to conform to the group rather than stick their necks out, to rely too much on the testimony and value-judgments of others to form their own beliefs and value-judgments and, generally, to do the wrong thing if they can get away with it” (p. 265).
Current Research Supporting or Refuting Milgram’s Findings
Most recently, Burger (2009) did a restricted duplication of the Milgram experiment. For the importance of avoiding ethical issues arising, he replicated the orders only up to where the participants first heard the learner's verbal disputes (150 volts).
For the replication of Milgram’s research, Burger took several additional precautions to ensure the well-being of the members. First, he used “two-step screening process for potential participants to exclude any individual who might have a negative reaction to the experience. Second, participants were told at least three times that they could withdraw from the study at any time and still receive their $50 for participation. Third, the experimenter administered a sample shock to