Essay on Comparative Analysis of Modernization

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Comparative Analysis of Modernization
Afghanistan and Japan

Introduction:
“The concept of modernization comes from a view of societies as having a standard uni-linear evolutionary pattern, as described in the social evolutionism theories” (Modernization). Modernization is the process of transition from a traditional and pre-modern society to a modern society. Societies must follow this process to achieve modernity. Also, urbanization and industrialization are two other processes that are linked to modernization. It can be said that thesetwo are the vehicles for the achievement of modernity.From the 16th to 19th century, modernization was introduced in European countries (Twente)through a long process of war making and state making.
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When Amanullah came back from the tour, he saw Afghanistan so backward and he immediately initiated some radical reforms. He tried to quickly modernize Afghanistan (Sikal, 2004). Actually,the idea of modernization in Afghanistan came by Amanullah and Tarzi, and it was right after the treaty of Rawalpindi was signed. They imagined a complete and radical transformation of Afghanistan to a modern society. They thought of four objectives to bring modernization to the country. First was to form a formal legal system for a constitutional monarchial government. Second one was to institute an Islamic and liberal process for development of economic infrastructure and social-cultural change. Third one was to build effective and efficient armed forces. And, the last objective was to enforce appropriate methods for mobilizing the afghan micro-societiesinto a united macro society (Sikal, 2004). Although Amanullah implemented his own modernization and development plans in the country, but due to obstacles his plans faced,his plans failed in modernizing Afghanistan.
Japan:
For centuries,Japan was ruled by feudal such as Tokugawa shogun era. During thosetimes, the country was divided into 300 feudal states. But Meiji ended this and promoted a centralization and modernization process in the country. Japanattained rapid modernization since 1868 under a very strong centralization. Coal mining which was

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