Cholecyctokinin Relating to Panic Disorder Essay

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Cholecyctokinin Relating to Panic Disorder

Cholecyctokinin is a neuropeptide found in the gastrointestinal system and brain. Research has shown that it has various isolated fragments that may influence several important areas of human behavior, such as nociception, satiety and anxiety. Cholecystokinin receptors located in the central nervous system (CNS) are known as CCK-B receptors, and they have high affinity for the tetrapeptide fragment CCK-4. Anxiogenic effect of CKK-4 in humans suggested that it might be involved in pathogenesis of panic disorder, and opened new avenues of research into biological aspects of anxiety. Further research showed increased sensitivity of panic disorder patients to CCK-4 in comparison with normal
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Along with objectively groundless emotional symptoms, e.g. fear of losing control, sense of unreality and detachment, even fear of dying they affect PD sufferers, interfering with social and professional aspects oftheir lives. Some PD patients associate panic attacks with certain objects or situations, and therefore phobias, especially agoraphobia , are closely associated with the PD. The ethiology of PD is not clear, and most theories support either a psychological or a neurobiological view. The most developed psychological explanation is cognitive theory of PD. According to Clark's model, the panic attack develops as a result of misinterpretation of unpleasant bodily sensations,which leads to increasing feeling of anxiety and progresses to a fully developed panic. This misinterpretation is defined as anxiety sensitivity, and it present in PD patients. When challenged by panicogenic pharmacological agents, anxiety sensitivity causes a faster and stronger response in PD sufferers than in healthy individuals.2 Biological theories concentrate on implicating pathological disturbances in the neurotransmitter systems, including GABA, serotonin (5HT) and noradrenaline. Recently attention was given to a less known neuropeptide cholecystokinin (CCK). Though it was first discovered in the

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