Centrality of the Demographic Transition Concept in the Analysis of Change in Human Populations

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Centrality of the Demographic Transition Concept in the Analysis of Change in Human Populations

Population can be defined as the total number of people living in that particular country at any one time. Population figures change from year to year due to increases and decreases of people within that country. These fluxes can be determined by a change in birth and death rates and also encompasses immigration and migration in or out of a country. If a particular country has more births than deaths the population will increase this is also known as natural increase. However, if I country experiences more deaths than births the population will decrease also known as natural decrease. Many countries
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In these ages there was little birth or family planning therefore there was little control over sizes of families. Infant mortality was also high therefore it encouraged parents to produce more in the hope that several would survive. All of these factors gave rise to high birth rates. The high death rates were mainly due to disease and lack of basic hygiene and medical procedures. Due to the high birth and death rates there was little growth in population and occasionally disease epidemics could cause a decrease in population, this is why this stage can also be called high fluctuating. The UK experienced this stage pre 1760’s and countries which are experiencing stage one in today’s world are Ethiopia and Bangladesh. The UK experienced the early expanding phase (stage 2) between 1760-1880. During this phase there were dramatic improvements in medical care and sanitation these factors and the improvements in food production in both quality and quantity helped decrease the death rates. Birth rates still remained high due to continuing tradition and practice. The huge drop in death rate and the continuing high birth rate meant that population ‘sky-rocketed’. Towards the end of this phase children were less of an importance and less able to contribute to the wealth of a family therefore this encouraged a small fall in birth rates. A prime example of a country

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