Essay on The Working Memory Model, By Baddeley And Hitch

1503 Words Nov 12th, 2015 7 Pages
The working memory model, as introduced by Baddeley and Hitch in 1974, outlined two distinct components: the phonological loop (PL) which deals with auditory information, and the visuospatial sketchpad which is concerned with visuo-spatial data. The PL consists of two parts, the phonological store and the articulatory control process (ACP). According to Baddeley and Hitch, auditory information is held in the store for about two seconds while the ACP recycles this information, through subvocalisation, to prevent decay.
The three main characteristics of the PL are: the word length effect which showed that short term recall of words gets worse as words get longer (Baddeley et al., 1975), the phonological similarity effect which states that recall is worse if a list of words is phonologically similar (Conrad & Hull 1964; Larsen et al., 2000), and the irrelevant sound effect which states that all unattended sounds, regardless of language (Colle &Welsh, 1976), or irrelevance (Salame & Baddeley, 1982) impaired performance. This is known as articulatory suppression. Salame and Baddeley (1989) found that vocal music impaired performance as well while Jones and Macken (1993) observed that instrumental music disrupts performance as long as it fluctuated in pitch. This essay will outline the role of PL in various everyday situations using the characteristics stated above.
It has been suggested that the PL plays a strong role in the learning of language. Papagno and Vallar (1992) found…

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