The Theories Of Behaviorism And Constructivism Essay

2082 Words Apr 14th, 2015 null Page
Introduction
Learning starts long before students come to a school or any formal institution of instruction, and remains continue even long after school finishes, in a variety of different ways and context (Churchill, 2013). Pritchard (2013) defines learning as “the individual process of constructing understanding based on experience from a wide range of sources” (p.1).Learning in a formal classroom environment occurs through conscious information processing and focused mental and social engagement (Olson & Dweck, 2008; Marsh, 2014, pp. 181-210). Behaviorism and constructivism are two main branches of the psychology of learning. Behaviorism is related to changes in behavior while constructivism based on the idea that knowledge and understanding are constructed by learners through cognitive and social process.
Jean Piaget (1896-1980) was the pioneer who acknowledged that learning is an evolving cognitive process and students are the constructor of knowledge rather than recipient of knowledge (Hammond, Austin, Orcutt and Rosso, 2001). In accord to Piaget’s cognitive constructivism, learning occurs when children go through the process of cognition and construct or change schemas by assimilating and accommodating the information. While, Vygotsky asserted that in social constructivism learning occurs when learners interact and collaborate with peers and real world situations. On the other hand, Vygotsky postulated that one’s social interactions that involve communicating and…

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