The Social And Creative Aspects Of Human Experience Into The Psychodynamic School
Adler (1927) introduce an emphasis on the social and creative aspects of human experience into the psychodynamic school unlike S. Freud (1900) and Jung (1912) who focused on the biological basis of personality.
Adler (1927) believed social interest was a master motive underlying human behaviour, not sexuality as S. Freud (1905) has suggested. Peluso et al (2004) noted that social interest is the capacity of individuals to create and fulfil their sense of belonging within their community. Adler (1927) acknowledged individuals differ in their need for social interest depending on their parent-offspring relationships. Furthermore, activity levels vary across individuals with high levels representing a giver tendency and low representing a getter tendency. Massy (1988) noted that Adler (1935) proposed four personality types; Socially Useful (High activity and social interest), Ruling (High activity, low social interest), Getting (low activity and social interest), and Avoiding (low activity and social interest). Like Jung (1912), Adler (1935) viewed complexes as linked to personality as the ruling type can be characterised by a superiority complex whereas the getting and avoiding types can be characterised by an inferiority complex.
In terms of research, Wheeler, Kern and Curlette (1986) developed the 48-item Life Style Personality Inventory (LSPI) to measure Adler’s (1935) styles of life. They identified the following factors; Conforming…