The Pros And Cons Of John Adams: The Second President Of The United States

John Adams was the second President of the United States. Before his presidency, he was a very influential leader in the fight for independence. Later, he helped draft the Declaration of Independence, and negotiated the Treaty of Paris. After the nation gained independence, Adams was elected the first Vice President under George Washington. When he was elected President, he successfully beat the Republican candidate, Thomas Jefferson, even though the Republican party thought he would try to recreate a strong central government (Digital History). Adams presidency only lasted for one term, however he had a very eventful term. In 1797, he sent a three person mission to France, to better relations with them. Also an undeclared naval war with France …show more content…
States’ rights is the idea that the union binding United States is an agreement between the states and that they therefore overrule federal law. Thomas Jefferson wrote the Kentucky resolution and James Madison the Virginia resolution. The resolutions had to be brought to state legislature because it was not yet established that the Supreme Court could declare laws unconstitutional. The general idea of both resolutions was that the Alien and Sedition Acts were unconstitutional and therefore states have the right to declare laws passed by Congress unconstitutional. Republicans also argued that the Sedition Act was violating the First Amendment of the Constitution, freedom of speech (Davidson 300-301). Part of the Kentucky resolution stated, “ . . . Definite powers, reserving each state to itself, the residuary mass of right to their own self government; in that whenever the general government assumes its delegated powers, its acts are unauthoritative, void, and no force,” (American Presidents in World History 30). The resolutions did not have much impact on the Alien and Sedition Acts, because none of the other state supported them, even though states rights were a rallying cry for defenders of slavery in the south. But states were now able to nullify, deprive of legal force, any law passed by Congress. The Alien and Sedition Acts eventually expired in two years (Davidson 301). In 1800, Adams was defeated for reelection by Thomas Jefferson. One of his last actions as president was the Midnight Judges. Adams tried filling the courts with all Federalist judges, all of his appointments were voided except for Chief Justice, John Marshall (O’Brien). Before Jefferson 's inauguration, the Judiciary Act was passed that recognize the federal court system (Israel 38). The Judiciary Act gave the Supreme Court the power to review cases brought against a federal official. Adams left office, leaving a mark on American

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