Sickle Cell Anemia Case Study Essay

Inherited red blood cell disorders are grouped together and called Sickle Cell Disease (SCD). Among these disorders, the most severe is Sickle Cell Anemia (HbSS). This red blood cell disorder is inherited and affects the RBC’s ability to carry oxygen (Addis, 2010). Normal red blood cells are disc shaped, but in sickle cell anemia the cells are shaped differently. Red blood cells in clients with Sickle Cell Anemia are sickle-shaped, crescent shaped (Allen & Harper, 2014). These abnormally shaped RBCs may cause blood vessels to become blocked due to clumping of sickle cells (Chabner, 2012). This leads to other complications. The purpose of this research paper is to show how the use of the nursing care delivery models, the nursing …show more content…
When assessing the client the nurse should ask open ended questions. These questions require more than a yes or no answer (closed ended questions). “Gordon’s Health Patterns and head-to-toe and body systems approach” (Ackley & Ladwig, 2014) should be used to help organize the assessment. The nurse should listen to the client and observe the client paying close attention to what the client states (subjective data) and how they act (objective data). Sickle Cell Anemia occurs after a child is six months of age (Cain, 2014). Therefore, a blood test can be done to diagnose Sickle Cell Anemia, usually at birth (Laurent, 2012). Amniocentesis can be done prior to birth to determine if the fetus has Sickle Cell Anemia. The nurse must be aware that “Sickle Cell Anemia is characterized by crises of joint pain, thrombosis, fever, and chronic anemia, with splenomegaly, lethargy, and weakness” (O’Toole, 2013). The client may also be pale and have yellowing of the eyes and skin, known as jaundice. The symptoms may be mild to …show more content…
Sickle cell anemia cannot be prevented. However, the nurse can take necessary precautions to alleviate symptoms and prevent complications caused by Sickle Cell Anemia. Bone marrow transplant can cure some cases of Sickle Cell Anemia (Addis, 2010). Blood transfusion, pain medications, IV fluids and antibiotics are used to treat complications. Oral penicillin and other vaccinations are administered early to prevent early death. Pain management is maintained through the use of oral, intravenous, and intramuscular medications. Clients may also use “non-pharmacological approaches such as psychological support, massage, acupuncture, and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation” (Addis, 2010). Also, inadequate heating, limited access to expert services, poor housing, lifestyle choice, diet and poor education can be used to treat pain in clients with Sickle Cell Anemia (Addis, 2010). In an emergency or to prevent short or long-term complications is a blood transfusion deemed useful. As an alternative to blood transfusion, hydroxyurea is given. Hydroxyurea increases the amount of fetal hemoglobin in red blood cells, which in turn, decreases the sickling and concentration of sickle hemoglobin. Clients receiving hydroxyurea had less hospitalization and transfusion and lower incidence of acute chest syndrome and sickle cell crisis (Addis,

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