Summary: The New Meaning Of Educational Change

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There are four main elements, according to Rogers, that can have a major influence over the spreading of a new innovation. They are: 1) the new innovation itself, 2) communication channels, 3) time, and 4) a social system. Diffusions can manifest differently because of the complexity of the organization’s makeup of individuals, as well as the norms within the group, the organizational procedures and rules, and leadership decisions. Social systems can also be influenced internally with interpersonal relationships, or externally, such as opinions of the mass media. Communication channels are an important factor throughout the diffusion. Within the social system, human capital can reach a “tipping point”, or “critical mass” when the adoption …show more content…
The implementation phase is where individuals attempt to make use of the innovation, and carry out actions, sustain commitment and problem-solve any barriers which may have arisen. Three areas of the factors affecting implementation were stated in The New Meaning of Educational Change, by Fullan and Stigelbauer (1991), which were: characteristics of change, local characteristics and external factors. They identified characterizations of change for each stakeholder and items for consideration before they commit or reject a change effort. They also found levels of stakeholders in local, and federal and governmental levels (Fullan & Stiegelbauer, 1991). The continuation phase is making a key decision about enterprising the innovation or not. Continuation depends on whether or not the change has become a part of the structure of the organization, has existing protocols for continuation, and if a critical mass of users has been achieved. The change outcome, whether positive or negative, will depend upon perceptions, which deal with the evolution of the continuous interaction among human participants and environmental changes within the organization.
Ellsworth (2000) stated that Fullan 's model helps leaders and change agents deal with the implications of change for organizations and people who are for the change or against it at differing
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Spirgi and Gebavi (2007) studied the governance of initiatives such as this when implementing an LMS in a large organization. In the first stages of planning, a structure should be created for decision-making, which is responsible for balancing strategic and operational processes. This is often easier said than done, however, as it is often complicated by decentralized departments, stakeholders with diverse agendas, and varied levels of vendor relationships (Spirigi, H. & Gebavi, A., 2007). Three types of governance models are described: federated, centralized, and blended. The federated model is where a centralized team develops the vision for learning and relies primarily on localized learning delivery. The centralized model depends upon shared services in the delivery of instruction and accountability is distributed but under the same umbrella. The blended model is a true “blend” of both, with centralized shared services combined with decentralized administration of the learning process. District X is decentralized in the learning administration domain, but uses the federated model for all large-scale, district-wide initiatives, thus using a blended model for governance. The implementation of the district LMS in this case used a federated governance

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