Contaminated Drinking Water

Improved Essays
Covering over 70% of the Earth’s surface and comprising two-thirds of the human body, water is essential to the sustenance of life (CDC, 2016a). However, only 3% of the world’s water is freshwater (WHO, 2015). Due to the limited availability of freshwater, 663 million people in the world lack access to safe drinking water (WHO, 2015). Contaminated drinking water can contain pathogenic bacteria from human and animal waste, harmful metals, and dangerous chemicals from the improper disposal of industrial wastes. Water-related diseases affect more than 1.5 billion people each year and result in a global loss of $260 billion each year due to the lack of safe water and sanitation (WHO, 2015).
The majority of the Earth’s freshwater exists in frozen
…show more content…
The hydrological cycle is the natural cycle in which water evaporates from the ocean and other bodies of water, accumulates as water vapor in clouds, and returns to the ocean and other bodies of water as precipitation (AWWA, 2009). Water that is not recharged by the hydrological cycle, such as groundwater, or sources that require a significant amount of time to recharge is characterized as non-renewable water (AWWA, 2009). Therefore, substantial withdrawal of non-renewable water can ultimately deplete these sources causing water scarcity (AWWA, 2009). Water scarcity is the lack of sufficient available water resources to meet the demands of water usage within a region (WHO, 2015). Currently, water scarcity affects more than 40% of the global population and is projected to rise as the population increases (WHO, …show more content…
Suspended particles from wastewater releases can reduce the amount of sunlight penetrating the water; thus, disrupting the growth of photosynthetic plants and microorganisms (NRDC, 2016). Additionally, increased urbanization and agriculture can increase the presence of organic matter and nutrients in the water, stimulating excessive plant growth (NRDC, 2016). This increase in plant growth decreases the amount of oxygen in the water, suffocating fish and other aquatic organisms (NRDC, 2016). Meanwhile, industrial waste impacts the ecosystem by interfering with the reproductive functioning of marine life (NRDC, 2016). Toxins from the environment can also bioaccumulate within aquatic organisms; thus, contaminating the food chain, as manifested in Minamata disease (NRDC,

Related Documents

  • Great Essays

    Globally, water pollution is to blame for around 2.3 billion illness and around 5 million deaths. Most of these happen in developing countries because of the lack of fresh water to begin with. Water pollution in any country, only subtracts from the global amount of fresh water. Factory farming which is to blame for toxic runoff and pollutants getting into the groundwater, and industrial dumping only lowers the amount of drinking water for everyone worldwide. Just as much as water pollution affects drinking water, it also affects aquatic…

    • 1210 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Great Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Threatens the survival of fish and other aquatic life forms. When the nutrients present in the aquatic ecosystems increase, there will cause the phytoplankton and the other photosynthetic plants grow quickly, known as algal blooms. As the result, the algal blooms will limit the oxygen required amount for the respiration by the other aquatic animal and plant species. Oxygen depletion happens when the plant life decrease, die and decompose. When the oxygen dissolved reach the maximum levels, the aquatic animal and plant species such as fish, shrimp and other aquatic plants asphyxiate to death.…

    • 1435 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Superior Essays

    In the United States, 40 percent of all food is uneaten (B). This amounts to about 197.7 billion dollars spent every year on food that is never eaten (B). That is an incredible amount of money that could be used on other things like funding education or researching cures for disease. The majority of food that is wasted is wasted at the consumer level. Consumers are responsible for wasting twenty one percent of all food produced while ten percent of all food produced is wasted by farms and retailers.…

    • 1000 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Superior Essays
  • Improved Essays

    An estimated 700 million Indians have no access to a proper toilet, and 1,000 Indians children’s die of diarrhea every day and so many other countries too. Nearly 500 million Chinese lack access of safe drinking water (Owa 2013). Definitely with all these, we can expect that there is going to be a reduction in productivity. “Biomas and diversity of communities are to be expected when large amount of toxic materials is released into the streams, lakes and coastal waters in the ocean” (Owa 2013). Much of aquatic pollution involves sewage in which organic waste predominate.…

    • 749 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Therefore this has caused thousands to seek medical treatments every year. Not only that but 40 present of all the lacks are too polluted the fish or swim in, overall each year 1.2 trillion gallons of wast gets dumped into the US water. In third there is India, India has the second largest pollution count in the world and has a huge growing economy. Around 1000 children die in India every year due to diseases caused from the polluted water. This is so serious that nearly 25% of all deaths in India are the result of the extreme air pollution.…

    • 1014 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Bottled Water Vs Tap Water

    • 1008 Words
    • 5 Pages

    Landfills are consumed by two million tons of water bottles alone. (Bottled Water Is Wasteful). PET plastic water bottles are making up about 3.3 percent of landfills. Each individual water bottle then takes approximately one thousand years to decompose, and produce toxic fumes if incinerated. The water bottle industry requires 17 million barrels of crude oil to produce enough bottles to meet the demand of the people in the U.S. (Bottled Water vs).…

    • 1008 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Causes Of Eutrophication

    • 757 Words
    • 4 Pages

    Can we witness the backlash due to this phenomenon? What measures can we do to reduce the impact to the water quality and the environment? What is eutrophication? • Eutrophication is known as the artificial nutrient enrichment of an aquatic system with organic material or inorganic nutrients (such as nutrient salts). • It causes an excessive growth of aquatic plant life and will cause significant changes to the aquatic ecosystem.…

    • 757 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Superior Essays

    Eutrophication is the process which causes ecosystems such as lakes and rivers to increase in fertility due to a higher level of nutrients entering the lake or marine environment (Mayhew, 2015). This results in a growth of plants such as algae. As these algae plants die, aerobic and anaerobic bacteria cause decay, therefore use up the oxygen within the marine environment (Credo, 2015). Eutrophication has significant impacts on water quality of rivers and lakes within the Waikato region. Although many of these waterways in the Waikato Region are improving due to mitigation efforts, some, including Lake Rotorua are continuing to decline despite these efforts.…

    • 1654 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Superior Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Water Pollution Essay

    • 824 Words
    • 4 Pages

    Imbalance in the life forms in water, when fertilizers are released into the water, the chemicals in them will lead into an abnormal growth in water organisms such as algae and marine plants, the abnormal growth will make them grow in a larger size which will block up the water ways, and thus blocking will prevent the sufficient oxygen needed by them from entering. One of the most seriously troubling effects of water pollution is the death of marine animals that lives in the aquatic system such as birds, whales and dolphins and fish in general sea. The main cause of this effect is the oil leaking and disposal from oil Tankers. The discharge of the oil in sea makes the water surface thick and black in color, this will block the sun light and oxygen from entering causing death to fish. For instance, over 8,000 animals from different types such as birds, turtles and mammals, were reported as death after the spill of oil in American coast.…

    • 824 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Superior Essays

    Other natural sources like lightning and volcanic ash can reduce the pH of the water as well. Furthermore, man-made pollutants can do its number on the pH. Industrial plants that mine and smelt high-sulfur ores or combust fossil fuels pollute the sky with high amounts of sulfur and nitrogen oxides, which lead to acid rain (Acids…). These influences can change the pH to be over or below the recommended levels of 6.0 and 9.0 (Kemker). When the pH becomes lower than 6, plankton and mosses begin to invade the source and fishes like the smallmouth bass disappear (Acids…).…

    • 1644 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Superior Essays

Related Topics