The Effects Of Exposure On The Body 's Homeostasis Essay examples

904 Words Aug 8th, 2016 4 Pages
Exposure to physical stress, chemicals and specific antigens, and bacterial or viral infections rapidly activate the body’s immune defence to fight the invasion and protect the body’s homeostasis, which is called inflammation 19. Inflammation might be acute or chronic, depending on the nature of a stimulus and the effectiveness of initial reactions in eliminating the stimulus or repairing damaged tissues. Acute inflammation can be induced by tissue damages from trauma 20, noxious compounds, or microbial invasion21. An acute inflammatory response is characterized by infiltration of a large number of polymorphonuclear cells, and their rapid clearance by macrophages to go into a phase of resolution and repair 22. At the site of inflammation, the vasodilation of blood vessels and their increased permeability are caused by release of small immune-mediating molecules such as histamine, serotonin and prostaglandins 19. The response induces immune cells, such as neutrophils, to migrate into infected tissues through the capillary wall, thus subsequently amplifying the immune response 23. The acute inflammation is related to the innate immune response involving neutrophils. However, chronic inflammation is regulated by adaptive immune systems. The cause of chronic inflammation may be associated with non-resolved acute inflammation or persistent inflammation from some certain viral infections and hypersensitivity reactions 19. The lymphocytes and macrophages are major elements in…

Related Documents