The Effect Of Oxytocin On Bone Restoration Essay
Due to oxytocin’s impact on bone restoration in maternal skeletons, it has been discovered that the same concept is not limited to pregnant women. Research has led scientists to believe that there is a wide range of uses for the oxytocin hormone with their role being heavily relied on by the aid of bone metabolism in osteoporosis. Osteoporosis results in a decrease of bone metabolism from a decrease in bone density and bone mass. Numerous studies have suggested that a link between oxytocin and bone metabolism will reverse the effects of this decrease and restore bone formation.
Oxytocin is most widely known as the love hormone. It is released by the pituitary gland and secreted in the hypothalamus. Classing as a nonapeptide, oxytocin is both a hormone and a neurotransmitter (Elabd and Sabry 2105). It is related to vasopressin, a pituitary hormone that promotes water retention by kidneys and increases blood pressure, in structure but differs by two amino acids. Oxytocin works on smooth muscle cells and effects MAOK/ERK signaling. The MAOK/ERK pathway is a chain of proteins communicating a signal via a receptor on the cell surface to the DNA in the nucleus of that cell. The way that they communicate is by adding phosphate groups to a neighboring protein and oxytocin helps by promoting cell proliferation. Oxytocin levels and oxytocin receptors reduce the expression in muscle stem cells during aging which in turn affects the homeostasis of skeletal…