The Decline Of The Seljuk Empire

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Part A. II. The decline of the Ghaznavids and the rise of the Seljuk empire, 1040-1200

The sultan-caliph relationship was established when the Turks entered Islam. They did not abolish the Caliphate, by replaced it with a new institution, the Sultanate. It was in the second half of the eleventh century that a third nation was added to the Islam empire. The Turks first entered the Caliphate four hundred years earlier when they were brought in as slaves or adventurers serving as soldiers. Through excellence in service and skill they eventually rose to powerful positions. In 962 the town and fortress of Ghazna was seized. Persian rule disappear. The twenty year reign of Alp Arslan’s son, Sultan Malik-Shah, saw the greatest expansion of Seljuk power. Civil administration under the Persian minister Nizam al-Mulk has been praised by Christian and Muslim historians alike.

Nizam al-Mulk also established the Iqta’ military land holding system where soldiers were given land holdings in exchange for military service similar to a feudal-like system. The soldiers were compensated with captured or uncultivated land. Mulk also created a system of state madrasas for the education of the populace. He established the Madrasah Nizamiyah during the late Abbasid period which
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A member of the harem of al-Salih, she was freed after she had borne him a son. For eighty days after her husband’s death she ruled as sole sovereign, had coins stuck in her own name, and had herself mentioned in Friday prayer. When Izz-al-Din Aybak was chosen as sultan by the amirs, she married him. She shared her consort’s power during his rule, and it was only when she learned that he intended to make another marriage that she had him murdered. She in turn was battered to death with wooden shoes wielded by the slave women of her husband’s first

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