# The Carbon Cycle

1660 Words 7 Pages
Consider the following questions on the carbon cycle:
[2 pts] Assume that the atmospheric reservoir of CO2 contains 830 Gt of carbon, and the rate at which CO2 is removed from the atmosphere is 180 Gt of carbon per year. What is the residence time of CO2 in the atmosphere? (Give units)
The residence time of CO2 in this atmospheric reservoir is 4.61 years.

[6 pts] Using the concepts we’ve discussed in class, explain two temporal patterns that you observe in the figure below and the processes that govern them.
Seasonality is exemplified by the red line spiking above and below the black line. Seasonality is representative of the Earth’s revolution around the Sun paired with the Earth’s tilt, which allows various amounts of sunlight depending
This graph would look very similar, as everyone on Earth shares the same atmosphere that regularly circulates; however the patterns associated with seasonality would be opposite because season cycles are opposite in the different hemispheres of our planet.
Consider the following questions on climate forcings and feedbacks:
[6 pts] What are two ways that clouds affect Earth’s radiation balance? Be sure to indicate whether they impact radiative flux in or out in each case. Clouds effect Earth’s radiation balance going in and out of the system. Radiative flux is moving in when the Sun’s radiation reaches the clouds some energy is reflected while the rest passes through the cloud to the Earth’s surface, more radiation is reflected by lower clouds. Radiative flux is moving out when the Earth’s radiation reaches the clouds some energy is reflected back to the surface while the rest passes through the cloud headed further into the atmosphere, more radiation is trapped by lower clouds.

[4 pts] Explain why water vapor changes are considered a feedback and not a
For portions (b) through (d) of this question, please refer to the figure below that plots δ18O-CaCO3 versus time from an ocean sediment core (from Zachos et al. 2008):
[6 pts] Over geologic time the Earth’s continents have shifted position. Provide and explain 3 reasons why the position of the continents affects the average temperature of the Earth.
1 The position of the continents directly relates to the layout of the ocean; therefore there is an obvious impact on ocean circulation. Ocean circulation largely determines heat distribution therefore, the position of the continents indirectly effects global heat distribution.
2 Tectonic activity commonly causes movement in the carbon cycle as volcanoes and ocean
In contrast subduction zones and ocean rifts take in carbon dioxide as well, but the net effect of high tectonic activity is higher global CO2 levels. A net rise in global CO2 levels indicates an increase in temperature.
3 Ice and albedo are also largely dependent on the position of the continents. Hell, the biggest reason that the Antarctic ice cap formed was because it was so isolated by other continents, in addition to the cold temperature in polar regions. As ice forms the albedo rises which forces a decrease in temperature, allowing more ice to

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Since Earth is a sphere, tidal forces would act differently in different part of ocean. 2. Tidal force Tidal force is the force that causes tides on Earth. In this section, we are going to discuss the formation of tidal forces from gravitational attractions of planets within the Earh-Moon-Sun system and the influences made by stars’ constantly changing positions. 2.1 Formation of tidal forces The tidal force is a secondary effect of the force of gravity.…

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• ## An Essay On Greenhouse Effect

Changes such as or slow changes in the earth 's orbit; or natural internal processes of the climate or earth system such as volcanic activity; or, as has occurred recently, human-induced (anthropogenic) factors. Climate change refers to the changes brought about by different environmental and industrial changes. Such as deforestation or increases in greenhouse gases. Often people think that global warming is the same thing as climate change but in fact global warming is just one form of climate change. Global warming is the increasing of the earth’s surface temperature.…

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• ## Persuasive Speech On Climate Change

Global warming is a complex phenomenon that can occur by different reasons. A. Global Warming caused due to nature. a) Solar Irradiance: changes in energy from the sun. According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Earth 's temperature depends on the balance between energy entering and leaving the planet’s system.…

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• ## Consequences Of Global Warming

Global Warming Global warming is changing the environment of Earth on a global scale. The world is continuing to get warmer and because there are many ramifications which can occur and the world must n. Due to many consequences which have ensued on Earth from the ozone layer depletion, to the melting polar ice caps, and the poles switching global warming has become more of a problem. Global warming, as a result of these human activities, can have many large-scale consequences. The earth 's atmosphere is constituted to allow sunlight to stream in uninterrupted. After striking the earth 's surface, this solar energy is reflected as longer wavelength infrared radiation.…

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• ## The Complications Of Global Warming

The primary cause of climate change is the increased emission of greenhouse gasses by human processes. The most significant greenhouse gasses include carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor and nitrous oxide. In order to understand the effect greenhouse gasses have on the earth, one must comprehend how energy enters and exits the atmosphere. The sun constantly emits short wave radiation. This radiation can be dangerous to human health in large quantities, causing sunburn and skin cancers.…

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• ## The Sun Essay

The lines found closet to the sun are close together because of the influence of solar winds. The lines protecting the Earth are much more elongated and less dense because they are not as influenced by solar winds. Charged particles along the lines become trapped which leads to the formation of Earth’s magnetosphere. The magnetic field is able to change for either a short or long period of time. A short-term change occurs after a disturbance from sunspots.…

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• ## Causes Of Global Warming Essay

Greenhouse effect releases gases such as carbon dioxide into the earth’s atmosphere and these gases and other different substances leads to global warming, as they create a thick covering on the earth’s atmosphere that traps the radiation from the sun. There are different facts, causes, effects and solutions to global warming. Global warming is as a result of a number of reasons. According to climate scientists, the increased quantities of carbon dioxide alongside other greenhouse gases which are mainly released when fossil fuels are burnt, is one of the primary causes of global warming. These gases act as a blanket and trap heat and as a result warm the earth.…

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• ## The Pros And Cons Of Differential Heating

Differential heating occurs when the earth leans and rotates around the sun that heats the globe year long. Because of so many changes of solar radiation, lower latitudes have more energy than the higher latitudes from the sun. Some locations on the same line of latitude will have different weather depending on how close or far they are to the oceans. Also lakes and rivers reduce the heat temperature because of the large amount of water they hold. When the atmosphere heats up it creates pressure, and different pressures create wind or breeze.…

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• ## Causes And Effects Of Global Warming

According to ucsusa.org, “Global warming is caused primarily by putting too much carbon dioxide into the atmosphere when coal, oil, and natural gas are burned to generate electricity or to run our cars. Carbon dioxide spreads around the planet like a blanket, and is one of the main gases responsible for the absorption of infrared radiation (felt as heat), which comprises the bulk of solar energy.” This quote is evidence of how the hole in the ozone layer allows UV rays to be wrapped around the Earth causing the warming of the…

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• ## The Causes Of Ocean Currents

(Zmuida, n.d) Therefore, currents can be moved by tidal patterns. As the tides rise and fall, ocean currents will be moved. As indicated by the National Oceanic and Climatic Organization, tides are produced by the gravitation between the Earth, the sun and the moon. This gravitational force influences the Earth's oceans. Currents in the oceans will happen along the tides, creating tidal currents and flows.…

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