Essay on The Basis Of Major Depressive Disorder ( Mdd )

2054 Words Jan 13th, 2015 9 Pages
The neurobiological basis of major depressive disorder (MDD)
Depression, is a common yet disabling mental disorder affecting over 400 million people worldwide with a higher incidence in women than men (World Health Organisation, 2012). Depression may be endogenous where there is no discernible cause or reactive whereby the depression was a result of an incidence such as the loss of a parent, loved one or stress.
Aetiology
According to Dr Michael Miller, a Professor of Psychiatry at Harvard University (2013), several forces interact to bring on depression including faulty mood regulation by the brain, medications, medical problems, genetic vulnerability and stress. In so much as age related brain changes as well as disease related changes , for example, cerebrovascular disease, Parkinson’s disease, and epilepsy, leading to disruptions in the circuitry of emotion regulation, can cause the onset of depression (Wryobeck, Haines, Wynkoop and Swanson, 2013). Areas of the brain underpinned by major depressive disorders such as the thalamus, the hippocampus and the amygdala (Limbic circuitry) ( Figure 1. Miller, 2013 ) include several groups of neurons and white matter. Cell connections, nerve cell growth, and the functioning of nerve circuits have a major impact, particularly in the way they communicate with each other. Several different chemicals and hormones working within and outside these nerve cells play a key role, with reduced levels of serotonin and noradrenaline posit…

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