DNA Technology: Forensic Identification

916 Words 4 Pages
Otto Schneider
Grade 10
Biology Ms Ruebe
D Assessment - DNA Technology

DNA Profiling

Forensic Identification

Forensic Identification refers to the use of forensic science to identify objects from trace evidence found on them. Trace evidence is used to reconstruct crimes or accidents.

DNA profiling is a method in forensic science which can identify individuals by their DNA profiles. DNA profiles are encrypted sets of letters that represent a person’s DNA makeup. These sets can be used as a person’s identifier. Although 99.9% of human DNA sequences are the same in every person, enough of the DNA is different between individuals that it is possible to distinguish one person from another, unless they are monozygotic twins. Technology is
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The Federal Bureau of Investigation defines a match when all 13 STR regions are identical with the sample. If so is the case, the culprit (or some other suspect) is virtually always identified. Only one STR mismatch, however, offsets the entire analysis, and therefore is enough to rule out a potential suspect (unless other evidence is found).

Advantages DNA Profiling

DNA profiling has almost absolute certainty of correctly identifying an individual. In fact, the chance of a false match are around one out of a billion (0.0000001% chance). This is a very important in legal terms, as falsely enjailed culprits may potentially sue the ones responsible.

Samples are very easy to obtain; At crime scenes strands of hair, dead skin cells on door knobs and clothing are the ideal placed to harbor evidence.

A scientific analysis of the DNA sample can be conducted in under 48
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Nowadays, crime cases are not being solved anymore where DNA profiling is not involved. It has by far increased the efficiency and the speed in which criminal cases can be now solved. On top of that, DNA profiling is not very costly compared to other forensic procedures. The cost of a DNA sample analysis varies widely, depending on complications involved. In the USA, the cost of one DNA sample analysis usually does never exceed the cost of $400. The cost of the whole analysis including all other attached costs does however not only confine itself to a maximum $400. Depending on the workforce needed to carry out the process, this cost may vary. In Nebraska, DNA samples were used to evidence approximately 80 cases. The total cost of all 80 cases was approximately $90,000, as the cost of the workforce needed to perform DNA profiling is high.

Economic and Social Impacts

The economic impact is considerable, because the method of DNA profiling shortens the investigation and saves high personnel costs. The companies that produces the equipment develop further equipment and procedures, which in turn helps also to bring forward science and not only the company. So highly skilled job opportunities in biotechnology are created.

A positive social impact is that court cases that require investigations can be shortened which has a positive effect on victims or relatives of

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