Swiss E Waste Case Study

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Fig. 1. Material and financial flows in Swiss e-waste.

One of the supports of the system is assured financing of the collection and recycling by charging on all new equipments under Advance Recycling Fee (ARF). All the collections are paid at ARF as well as the transport and the recycling of the disposed equipments. For small items like hair dryers, the ARF range it to CHF (Swiss franc) 1, up to CHF 20 for TVs and CHF 40 for refrigerators. In 2003, the total ARF collected was about CHF 71.66 million.
Table 1 shows the expenditure under the recycling, transport and collection. It shows that most of the ARF went to the recyclers, totalling CHF 41.41 million. S.EN.S paid CHF 18.01 million while SWICO paid CHF 23.40 million.
For period 01.01.03–31.12.03 SWICO S.EN.S System
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An exporter must provide documentary evidence that the final disposal of e-waste is managed in an environmentally manner and has the approval of the importing country. Plus, Switzerland does not permit the export of e-waste to non-OECD countries as Switzerland is a signatory to the Basel Convention Ban Amendment,.
3. E-waste recycling in India—the New Delhi case study
3.1. Background
India, with over 1 billion people is one of the fastest growing economies of the world., There was a 53.1% improve in the sales of household equipments from 1998 to 2002 (Euromonitor, 2004).
Unfortunately, India ranked 101th on the 2005 Environmental Sustainability Index according to Esty, et al (2005), and ranked 66th for Environmental Governance. It is due to low environmental concerns among producers as well as the awareness of consumers relating to environmental problems.
In India, recycling is a growing industry and market-driven.
Approximately 1.38 million personal computers obsolete every year reported by a New Delhi based NGO, Toxics Link, on computer waste according to Agarwal, et al
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2. Then the small collectors sell their collections to traders who separate different types of e-waste and lastly sell it to recyclers, who recover the metals. As the volume of e-waste has grown from year to year, as a result, some waste processors focussing only on e-waste. It is attractive for small entrepreneurs to join the industry because of low initial investment needed to start a collection, sorting, disassembling or recovery business. No wonder this system provides job to many people according to Baud, et al (2001). E-waste recycling has become a profitable business but since it is an unorganised sector, there are no data and statistics available for the number of people it employs. For Delhi, the study estimates the number of unskilled workers in recycling and recovering stations to be at least 10,000 people (Empa, 2004). The biggest disadvantage of the current Indian system is the emission of hazardous substances into the air, soil and water. The health hazards from smokes and dangerous chemicals will affect both environment and the workers who come into contact with the

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