Stroke Case Study : Stroke Case Study Essay
1. The man has had an ischaemic stroke, identify the biological changes that would have occurred in his brain during the process.
Arnold’s ischaemic stroke would be initiated when a lack of blood supply (ischaemia) is prevented from reaching the brain (NHS, 2016). The lack of oxygen causes the neurons within the brain to start a chain reaction, in the form of an ischaemic cascade. This begins seconds after the onset of ischaemia.
The ischaemic cascade is a biological reaction, it starts when there is a lack of oxygen and glucose this prevents the cells from creating adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP); this is the energy supply for cells. The organelle mitochondria, produces ATP, which regulates the chemicals within the cell, as it controls the sodium potassium pump and the sodium calcium pump. With the energy from ATP it enables the sodium ions to be pumped into the cell, calcium ions to be pumped out of the cell. A lack of ATP causes the amount of calcium ions to build up. When there is too much calcium it causes glutamate (a neurotransmitter), to be released. Glutamate is an amino acid, which is used in the synthesis of proteins (Neurotransporter, 2016). However, too much glutamate can be harmful; as it is toxic to cells. Therefore, cells that contain glutamate receptors are sensitive to glutamate, if the amount of glutamate increases, this causes the cells to become excited, releasing more glutamate causing excitotoxicity in the neurons, causing the…