Chlorhexidine Derivatives Lab Report

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1. Introduction
The aim is to produce a biopolymerical matrix from alginate derivatives loaded with chlorhexidine derivatives (chlorhexidine digluconate and chlorhexidine dihydrochloride) to use in treating periodontal diseases, which is widespread internationally. These diseases are referred to as periodontitis, or also as gingivitis. Gingivitis happens when the plaque and tartar stay longer time on teeth, and then become more harmful. In gingivitis, the gums become red, swollen and can bleed easily, this makes the cleaning of the teeth more difficult, and if it remains untreated, the inflammation affects also the jaw bone [18]. While Periodontitis is not just chronic inflammation of the gums and jawbone caused by different bacteria, but also
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Nevertheless, the solubility can change somehow with the properties of solution (pH, concentration of cation, etc.) [3]. The solubility of alginates in water depends on pH of the solvent, the ionic strength of the medium, and the presence of gelling ions in the solvent. Therefor the pH should be above the critical value, and the carboxylic acid groups should be deprotonated. It is also important to have an aqueous solvent that is free of cross-linking ions to enable dissolution [3].

1.1.1.4 Viscosity
The viscosity of alginate is influenced by many parameters such as the concentration and the temperature of the used alginate, whereby the concentration has a positive influence and the temperature has a negative relationship. The viscosity of alginate solutions increases as well by decreasing pH, as carboxylate groups in the alginate backbone become protonated, form hydrogen bonds and reach a maximum around pH = 3–3.5 [3].
Another factor that affects the viscosity ist the length of the alginate molecule, or the number of the monomer units in the chains (MW), the longer chains have higher

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