Concussions Or Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

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Many people overlook the severity of concussions and the potential health effects that it opposes on the brain. Concussions or mild traumatic brain injury is one of the most common neurological disorders as well as the leading cause of long-term disability according to Lisa A. Clarke 2012. A blow to the head causing the brain to move back and forth causes a concussion or mild traumatic brain injury. The brain being the most fragile organ in the body cannot handle this sudden movement and bounces around within the skull. This can cause the brain to swell as well as stretching and tearing of nerve tissue. Also this force alters the balance of ions and chemicals that can cause unconsciousness depending on the severity of the injury.
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Short-term affects consist of (SIS) or secondary impact syndrome. The short-term consequences of concussion include a wide variety of neurologic and cognitive symptoms that typically persist for hours to days following a concussion. These symptoms are typically self-limited and resolve with rest. The most severe short-term effect of concussion is second impact syndrome (SIS). It occurs when an athlete suffers repeated concussions without adequate time to heal in between concussions. The pro- posed mechanism of SIS is that following the initial concussion, the brain is in a vulnerable state and when concussed again, due to impaired cerebral auto regulation, massive cerebral edema and herniation of the brain through the bottom of the skull occurs causing death. (Bodle, 2014) The medium-term effects of concussion also constitute a variety of neurologic and cognitive deficits. These symptoms of the “post-concussive syndrome” include persistent headache, light-headedness, lethargy, sleep disturbance, photophobia, phonophobia, memory dysfunction, poor attention and concentration as well as anxiety, irritability, and depression. (Bodle, 2014) The long-term effects of repeated concussions include early onset cognitive decline and psychiatric disturbance. These symptoms represent the neurodegenerative process called chronic traumatic encephalopathy. (Bodle,

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