Second Language Classroom Reflection

Great Essays
CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Second Language Classroom Participation and the Importance of Output through speaking

Second language classroom participation or engagement is important in classroom as the conceptualization of Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) approach claims that English language being taught as a system for expressing meaning (Nunan, 1999). As learners involves in the classroom either with the teacher or peers, they are most likely to involved in the ‘negotiation of meaning’ in expressing, clarifying their intentions, thoughts and opinions (Lightbrown and Spada, 2006). This will contribute to the development of learners ‘communicative competence’ in the classroom (Hymes, 1972; Larsen-Freeman, 2000; Chang & Goswani,
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Reticent individuals are very sensitive to negative evaluation as they might avoid in communicating with others. Interaction is important part of human nature because it satisfy our innate predisposition to develop and sustain a relationship.
Perceive Incompetence. Individuals who avoid communicating often view themselves as incompetent or lacking in communication skills. Reticent individuals view themselves as less competent to non-reticent individuals.

Helplessness. It is a result of communication as apprehension where poeple develop anxiety because of reward and punishment.

Anxiety. It is a consequence by considering the belief system of reticent individuals. They understand the need to communicate but they perceive themselves as helplessly incompetent.
Devaluation. the reticent individuals understand the need of communication but consider themselves as unable to be good communicator as they experience cognitive dissonance which they alleviate in part by devaluing communication.

Withdrawal. Reticent individuals avoid communication by avoiding situation that will require them to talk in communication
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In the other hand, learners can work hard in order to have large vocabulary and be supportive towards each other when using English as the medium of communication in class . It will help learners to become less afraid of making mistakes and replace it with confidence and willingness to speak in the target language.

It is also important for English teachers to teach and train learners to be supportive towards one another in classroom as Zou (2004) states that competition often caused learners to have less willingness to speak in the target language, while a supportive relationship between learners often makes them feel free to do in class.
A relaxing and supportive environment can also be build by conducting small group discussion in the classroom. Group discussion will allow learner to offer a contribution in a manner that they feel less threatening to their self-esteem than having to speak in front of the teacher or the class. By utilizing group discussion, learners can correct their misunderstandings by discussing and finally came out with the most sensible answer as the outcome of the

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