Phonological Processing

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Phonological processing refers to the use of phonological information, specifically the sound structure of one’s oral language, in processing written language. It is important to identify individuals who struggle with phonological processing because it is an essential component to literacy. One of the standardized tests developed to measure phonological processing is the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP), it was published in 1999. In this paper we will discuss the purpose, normative sample, reliability and validity of the CTOPP. The CTOPP is used to identify individuals ages 5 years to 24 years and 11 months, who are significantly below their peers in important phonological abilities. Due to the wide age range covered …show more content…
Validity is whether or not a test measures what it claims to measure. In the instance of the CTOPP, the user should know if it truly measures phonological processing. There are three types of validity that were assessed. These include, content, criterion related, and construct validity. Content validity is derived by careful examination of the content of a test by reviewing the following: the appropriateness of the types of items included, the completeness of the item sample, and the way in which the items assess the content. The CTOPP was reviewed by experts in the area of phonological processing and the reviews were positive in nature. Next, it is important to review the subtests. The CTOPP has eight subtests. The first subtest is Elision. Elision is the omission of a sound or syllable in a spoken word. This subtest was chosen based on a study in 1971 that determined elision tasks were correlated with reading. The second subtest is blending words. This is an important phonological skill when learning to read and decode words. The sound matching subtest is specific for children ages 5 or 6 only. Sound matching is an important skill for beginning readers and this was tested by identifying words that share a common initial or final segment. The following subtests are considered to be supplemental subtests for adults. These include blending nonwords, segmenting words, segmenting nonwords and phoneme reversal. The test also includes phonological memory subtests. These include memory for digits, nonword repetition, and finally rapid naming of colors, objects, digits, and letters. These subtests were used based on studies that prove time required naming is predictive of reading performance. Reviewing the subtests shows that the rationales are all based on research from the 70s. At the time, this test could be considered valid, but now it is outdated. Criterion related validity

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