Resumption Of Vehicle Control

828 Words 4 Pages
1. Introduction
In the past years, an increasing number of driving assistance systems have been integrated in vehicles and the task of vehicle driving is automated to an ever greater extent. In an automated vehicle, the driver can switch his/her attention away from driving tasks to non-driving tasks such as reading and texting. However, since the automation technology is not perfect, the capability of automated driving still largely relies on conditions such as the weather and road type, which suggests that vehicles only have limited self-driving automation in the near future. In this case, resumption of vehicle control raises a number of problems because of the “out-of-the-loop” issue. Thus, the automated vehicle will need to deliver take-over
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D. Lee, Hoffman, & Hayes, 2004; J. D. Lee, McGehee, Brown, & Reyes, 2002; Liu & Jhuang, 2012; Meng & Spence, 2015; Spence & Ho, 2008a, 2008b, 2009). Visual and auditory interfaces have been the most common modes of communication between machine and human. There is now an extensive research based on the effects of visual and auditory interfaces on human behavior in the vehicle (Lif et al., 2014; MacLean & Hayward, 2008; Petermeijer, de Winter, & Bengler, 2015). In the past decade, the potential of tactile interfaces have been increasingly investigated, …show more content…
Auditory signals in the ranges of 20-20,000 Hz are perceivable, however, the sensitivity of human skin to the frequency of tactile signals are much lower. Generally speaking, human can perceive vibrations in the range of 20 to 1000 Hz, however, maximum sensitivity occurs in the range of 150 to 300 Hz (peak at ~250 Hz) (G. A. Gescheider, Bolanowski, Pope, & Verrillo, 2002; G. A. Gescheider, Bolanowski, & Verrillo, 2004; Gunther & O’Modhrain, 2003). The number of discrete values that can be differentiated is still under investigated. Gill (2003) suggested that a maximum of nine different levels can be adopted (Gill, 2003). Sherrick (1985) found that participants could only differentiate 5 levels of vibration frequency in the range of 2 to 300 Hz (Sherrick, 1985). In addition, a change in vibration amplitude can lead to a change in the perception of frequency (Brewster & Brown, 2004). Given a certain vibration frequency, the sensitivity of frequency will increase with vibration amplitude increasing (Morley & Rowe,

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