RESEARCH SHOWING DIFFERENCES IN STM+LTM:4
Shallice and Warrington reported the case study of K.F. who as a result of an accident had a reduced STM of only one or two digits and a recency effect of one item. Yet his LTM for events after the accident was normal, supporting the idea of separate short and long-term stores.
DESCRIBE THE WMM:4
Baddeley and Hitch proposed the Working Memory Model (WMM), the basis of their model was that the STM was not just one single store but in fact is made up of several components. The first element to their model is the central executive (CE), which coordinates all the information the memory working memory system, receives. It decides where to send incoming information, which is received from the senses or
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One of the key findings from their research was the fact that people seem to remember more when they are given retrieval cues and so they believed that this could be accomplished in police interviews by having the interviewer reinstate the context of the event. As a result of their findings they created an interviewing technique, which they called the cognitive interview. This technique was characterised by four components 1) The interviewer must encourage the interviewee to report everything they can remember no matter how insignificant it may seem 2) The interviewer should encourage the interviewee to mentally recreate the original environment and people from the incident in their mind 3) The interviewer should try to get the interviewee to remember the events in an unfamiliar order 4) The interviewer should encourage the interviewee to recall the incident from multiple perspectives e.g. other witnesses present at the time. The idea of the first two components is that if the witness can accurately recreate the original situation then they are likely to be more accurate in their recall of events. The final two components work on the principle that memory is stored via different routes and so testing those routes by looking at the information in multiple ways reflects that.