Pharmacogenomics Case Study

Pharmacogenomics is the study of how genes affect a person’s response to drug. A new emerging field which hold the combinational knowledge of pharmacology and genomics in order to provide not only safe and effective medication but also have the high degree of acceptance with the genetic make up of the patients.
Current status of dose regimen followed ”one size fits all”. But is very tiresome job to predict these therapeutic responses in all the patient. Some times dominating negative side effects are seen with the same medication. By the tremendous work of the Human genome project, scientists are trying how alteration in the gene expression affects the body responses to medication. This knowledge can be applied to know whether the medication applying is effective to the person and help to prevent its adverse drug reaction.
It is new emerging field and its knowledge is quite limited till date. But it holds the major potential in tailoring of drugs treat wide range of health problems including HIV, cancer etc.
From the data base of the human
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Pharmacogenomics and its application in drug development
1. Drug target and Pharmacogenomics: The very initial step of drug development starts with identification of the rug targets. These targets may be recep0tors, enzymes, transporters, ion channels etc. 8000 drug targets were estimated after sequencing the human genome. Among the 2392 actually acted upon for antibodies and 794 for drug proteins.
These targets are known to exhibit various polymorphism. For instance, the polymorphism of B2 adrenoceptors which was discussed earlier producing responders and non responders phenotypes.
Sometimes these various targets occurs due to combined effects of genes rather than single gene. In such cases pharmacogenomics is very helpful in identifying such targets combining with SNP maps and gene variation study of normal and affected

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