Parent Involvement Essay

1985 Words 8 Pages
The majority of the articles that I used here were found using the ERIC database, Google Scholar doing keywords search such as family involvement, parent involvement, homework, parent involvement and achievement, parent and homework, and TIPS.
Brief History of Parent Involvement
“Parents are a child’s first teacher.” It is true not only biblically but historically. Prior to the establishment of any public school system in America, it was parents who were primarily responsible for educating their children as well as developing character qualities, work ethics, and instilling disciplines in them. Even during colonial times, parents still had a control of their children’s education since the board members were comprised of parents in the township.
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In 1995, Epstein developed a framework for defining six different types of parent involvement based on the previous studies done by her and other researchers (Becker & Epstein, 1982; Epstein, 1985, 1986,1987a, Epstein and Dauber, 1991). The framework was developed for the purpose of assisting educators to create and implement an effective parent involvement program. Epstein’s first type of parent involvement is parenting. Parents can help students and the school by providing home environments that support learning. Communication between home and the school is the second type of Epstein’s parent involvement. Parents can get involved by attending parent- teacher conferences, reading and responding to weekly or monthly folders, newsletters, and memos. The third type is volunteering. Parents can support the school and teachers by volunteering in classrooms, attending and helping out special school functions and sports events. Epstein’s fourth type of parent involvement is learning at home, which includes homework assistance and other curriculum related activities that stimulate cognitive –intellectual part of student learning at home (Grolnick & Slowiaczek, 1994). The fifth type of Epstein’s parent involvement is decision making. Parents can be involved in education by being active in parent organizations and school committees or being the advocates for the school and its programs. The sixth and final type is collaborating with community. Parents can identify and integrate resources from the community to strengthen school programs and or vice versa. Hoover-Dempsey and Sandler (1995, 1997) defined parental involvement in two broader categories: home-based activities and school-based activities. Home-based involvement includes talking with children about school, having high expectations, building strong study habits and providing a safe

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