The Effects Of Parental Involvement In The School

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For the last several decades the parental involvement has been studied by numerous researches. This chapter will review literature on the effects of parent involvement relating to school activities. Reasons for lack of parent involvement, programs and ideas to get parents involved will be explored.
Parental involvement
Maccoby and Martin (1983) describe the parent involvement as the way as a parent is "committed to his or her role as a parent and to the fostering of optimal child development" (Maccoby & Martin, 1983, p. 48). Moreover Johnston (1998 p.192) states: “There is one irrefutable truth in education: parent involvement in the schools promotes student success and achievement.”
For the last decades the academic achievement of American
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Besides, research showed that parental involvement is an important factor in increasing student’s achievement than any other factor (Chavkin & Williams, 1988; Comer, 1986; Fan & Chen, 2001; Henderson & Berla, 1994).Moreover the parental involvement could be assimilated with some activities like: communicating with teachers or other school personnel, assisting in academic activities at home, volunteering at school and attending school events, meetings of parent-teacher associations or parent-teacher conferences. For middle and high school students, discussions between parents and adolescents about school and plans for the future are often included in definitions of parental academic involvement (Hill & Taylor, 2004).
Epstein (1987) advanced a broadly recognized typology to consider for different levels of parental involvement in children 's education. Initially, in her work, Epstein (1987) identified four types of parental involvement in schools:
-basic obligations,
-school- to-home communications,
-parent involvement at school, and
-parent involvement in learning activities at home.
Later Epstein (1992) expanded the previous typology and identified six types of opportunities for parent involvement in school. These types are:
-assisting parents in child-rearing skills,
-school-parent communication,
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(2009), and Henderson and Mapp (2002). In the area of parental involvement a well-known researcher is Dr. Joyce Epstein. Dr. Epstein is the founder and director of the National Network of Partnership Schools at Johns Hopkins University. Dr. Epstein has a plethora of studies and work published in more than 100 publications. Dr. Epstein focuses on school, family, and community partnership programs that will boost practice and policy in an effort to increase student academic

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