Pancreatic Cancer : The Most Lethal Malignancies Essay

1073 Words Nov 30th, 2015 null Page
Pancreatic cancer is among the most lethal malignancies. This is primarily because it is extremely invasive in nature with high metastatic potential. Nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB) is crucial in gene transcription involving inflammation. Once activated the transcription factor codes for genes that control growth factors and molecules associated with cellular invasion. This protein complex is present in various cancer cells including pancreatic cancer. IL-1b can improve cancer cell invasive ability with NF-kB activation (4). NF-kB is activated by LPS and is responsible for apoptosis resistance of human lung cancer cells and thus aids in their immune escape (3). Tumours can thus evade various immune responses and continue to grow. Studies show that the release of LPS from gram positive bacteria initiates NF-kB activation with various cancers, such as colon and pancreatic (4). LPS causes the inactive heterodimer made of p50, p65 and IkB to phosphorylate as well as the ubiquitination dependent breakdown by proteasomes. Nuclear localization signals are then exposed resulting in translocation and binding to a gene sequence, activating gene transcription including immune escape molecules (4).

An antigen is first immobolized on a hard surface and coupled with an antibody linked to an enzyme. Immoblization is achieves by antibody capture or direct transfer to the assay (5). The sample is incubated followed by observation of enzyme activity in the presence of a subtrate. This method…

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