Organic Extraction Experiment

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In this experiment, the goal was to isolate an organic substance. Using extraction, a basic, acidic, and neutral substance was expected to be extracted from the original unknown compound.
Extraction is a process that allows the separation of substances that were previously mixed together through the use of a solvent1. This can be useful in situations where the substance has both the desired product and undesired byproducts in it. In order for extraction to work, the solvent must be able to target only one part of the substance. The solvent used is always immiscible so that it forms two separate layers2.
Extraction is performed with the use of a separatory funnel. This funnel is designed to have one open side and one side that
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The basic substance took up a proton and the acidic substance lost a proton6. In the case of the acidic extract, 10% sodium hydroxide (or any similar base) must be added to take back the proton that the unknown base took up1. Once that happens the original unknown base will be left it its beginning form. This is evident by the formation of a precipitate. In order to separate the original base and all other substances, the entire mixture was vacuum filtrated1. The precipitate left was the original base.
Likewise, for the basic extract, concentrated hydrochloric acid was added in order to donate the proton that the unknown acid lost1. The original unknown acid should be left in its beginning form, and it should exist as the precipitate in the mixture6. To fully separate it, vacuum filtration was necessary1.
The melting point of a solid substance can tell a lot about the purity of it. If a substance is impure it will have a different melting point than the pure substance10. This impure melting point will generally be lower than the pure melting point, and also occur over a wider range of temperatures10. These pure substances have known melting points discovered by scientists over the
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This was dissolved in a beaker in 20 mL of ether. The solution was then poured into a separatory funnel though a funnel, taking care to make sure that the stopcock was closed. 14 mL of 10% HCl (hydrochloric acid) was added and the separatory was shaken. When shaking, it was important to invert the separatory funnel and open the stopcock to release any build up pressure. The lower (aqueous) layer was drawn off into a 125 mL Erlenmeyer flask. This extraction was repeated twice more, both continuing the use of 14 mL of 10% HCl and drawing off the aqueous layer afterwards. After that, 5 mL of water was added, and the aqueous layer was extracted again. These aqueous layers were added together and set to the

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