Mr Penzey Case Study Essay

Improved Essays
1. What were the main findings of Mr. Penzey’s physical exam? How could his CT results be related to his blood pressure findings?
When Mr. Penzey's case study was analyzed, the initial tests performed on him indicated multiple findings. A mass was found during the CT scan, located on the adrenal gland; the adrenal gland is located on top of the kidneys, their function is to help in burning proteins and fats. This is how the adrenal gland keeps the blood pressure under control and regulates the normal flow of blood to the body (McLeod, 2008). There are mainly six major conditions that are associated when a mass is found in the adrenal glands. A condition called Paraganglioma also known as Para, and Pheochromocytoma also known as Pheo, these
…show more content…
This system is known to be one of the longest systems of hormones, as it was discovered about 100 years ago. Renin is an enzyme protein in nature that flows through the kidneys while angiotensin is a hormone that circulates in the bloodstream and constricts the blood vessels. By causing a restriction in the blood vessels, this hormone can increase the blood pressure which ultimately overworks the heart and body (Sahay, & Sahay, 2012). Aldosterone is a hormone produced by the adrenal cortex, this hormone helps in regulating the blood pressure. Whenever there is a decrease in blood flow to the kidneys, this system is activated. The typical flow of these hormones is renin release angiotensin, which then releases …show more content…
Penzey lab results show a high level of sodium. The average level of sodium ranges between 136-244 mmol/L and his lab results indicated high levels of 150 mmol/L. When sodium is present in high amount in the bloodstream it is difficult for the kidney to filter out water (Wedro). Potassium salt helps by balancing the negative effects of salt on the body. When potassium levels are low the muscle cramp up and weakening of the muscles occurs, which is one of the symptoms shown in Mr. Penzey’s condition. Mr. Penzey also suffers from severe low levels of Renin hypertension (LREH) at about 0.4 while the average range is between 0.5 to 3.3 ng/mL/hr. LREH is a condition that is sensitive to salts. Mr. Penzey level of aldosterone is at 2-9 ng/dl while the average range is 21, this shows he is off track from the normal values. With the information about Mr. Penzey’s low level of potassium and high level of aldosterone, it is clear that his body will reabsorb the sodium causing an electrolyte imbalance that can potentially lead back to high blood pressure, muscle weakness and headaches. Despite Mr. Penzey’s normal pH level at 7.45, he is still in danger of suffering from alkalosis due to his electrolyte imbalance. (Gibbons, 2015). In addition, to analyze Mr. Penzey condition better he can also be tested for the stimulation test for adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), CT scan, electrolyte test and MRI (Sahay, & Sahay,

Related Documents

  • Improved Essays

    Bio 202 Unit 1 Case Study

    • 1549 Words
    • 7 Pages

    But due to the fact that G.L has a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy his cardiac output is low because the lack of heart filling. 6) what is left ventricular hypertrophy? Why would G.L condition cause left ventricular hypertrophy? Left ventricular hypertrophy is when the heart muscle is thickened the chambers are stiff and thick and this does not allow the heart to fill. 7) what does the inverted T- wave indicate?…

    • 1549 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Great Essays

    A physician will typically order a complete blood count [CBC] to check erythropoietin hormone levels [hormone that stimulates bone marrow to produce red blood cells]. When the kidney is severely damaged, its ability to make the erythropoietin hormone decreases. This would show on the CBC test as a low red blood cell [RBC] count, otherwise known as anemia. Potassium may be higher and bicarbonate levels may be lower when you have CKD. This would usually lead to metabolic acidosis.…

    • 1369 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Great Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Mr Penzey Case Study

    • 685 Words
    • 3 Pages

    1. What were the main findings of Mr. Penzey’s physical exam? How could his CT results be related to his blood pressure findings? A physical examination for high blood pressure also comprises a medical history. The extent of the physical examination as well as the level of detail in your doctor's questions depend on how high your blood pressure is in addition to whether you have other risk factors for heart disease.…

    • 685 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    The patient may have an altered mental status, fruity smelling breath, fever, chills, abdominal pain, coughing and chest pain. The patient with DKA may also be dehydrated. It is important to maintain fluid volume and monitor glucose levels. These patients will most likely be on an insulin drip (Knippa, 2012). Another serious condition resulting from uncontrolled hyperglycemia is hyperglycemic-hyperosmolar state (HHS).…

    • 2015 Words
    • 9 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    It is usually caused by illness, poor personal hygiene, and undiagnosed type 1 diabetes. The goal of treatment for diabetic ketoacidosis is to increase blood glucose levels with insulin. Also, to replace fluids lost through urination, loss of appetite, and vomiting. You can use an insulin pump, just make sure that there is no kinks in the hose, blockages, or disconnections. Also, there is an option for a pancreatic…

    • 814 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Superior Essays

    Human Immune System

    • 1438 Words
    • 6 Pages

    This test recognizes the high level of liver bi-product c- reactive protein in the body, due to inflammation. Patients are treated after test in order to strengthen the body immune system and suppress the disorder. Treatment of choice for Auto immune disorder depends on the patients’ symptoms. Blood transfusions are needed for blood auto immune disorders. People whose muscles, bones and movement are affected by autoimmune disorder are given immunosuppressive medication such as corticosteroids to minimize the…

    • 1438 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Superior Essays
  • Superior Essays

    Nifedipine Case Study

    • 1013 Words
    • 5 Pages

    It is imperative to monitor the patient’s blood glucose and administer glucose when needed to prevent insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Glucagon can also be administered intravenously in patients with refractory hypotension. If all of the above treatments have failed a phosphodiesterase inhibitor can be given to help improve conductivity in the heart. 9. In this case hemodialysis will be of little benefit because the nifedipine is highly protein bound at 92-98% and has a large volume of distribution.…

    • 1013 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Superior Essays
  • Superior Essays

    Essay On Pancreatitis

    • 1616 Words
    • 7 Pages

    Acute pancreatitis can make the pancreas defenseless to bacteria and infection. These infections are very severe and can require rigorous treatment, which can include surgery to remove the infected tissue. Acute Pancreatitis can also cause chemical changes in the patient, these often affect the lung function. Whenever the lung function is disrupted this results in decreased blood oxygen levels, which in return causes damage to the cells. (Roth, E, Crucik, G. 2015) Most commonly in chronic pancreatitis, whenever damage is done to the insulin producing cells this then leads to diabetes, which that affects the way the body uses blood sugar.…

    • 1616 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Superior Essays
  • Great Essays

    Which of the following hormones is correctly matched to its source and function(s)? A) melatonin: pituitary gland; controls mood B) thymosin: thyroid gland; regulates metabolism C) gastrin: kidney; controls blood pressure D) ANP: heart; regulates blood Ca2+ E) EPO: kidney; stimulates formation of red blood cells ____ 78. Which of the following is NOT correct? A) A change in the environment that produces a stress response is a stressor. B) Eustress is productive stress that allows the body or mind to meet challenges.…

    • 3795 Words
    • 16 Pages
    Great Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Type 2 Diabetes Papers

    • 974 Words
    • 4 Pages

    (Association, 2005-2014) Diabetic ketoacidosis is a condition that can easily turn into a diabetic coma, or even death. DKA occurs when the cells don’t get the glucose they need, they begin to burn fat in your body for energy, producing ketones. Ketones are acids that build up in the bloodstream and can appear in urine when your body doesn’t have enough insulin. This is developed in patients with type one diabetes, and is rare in people with type 2. The warning signs for DKA are Thirst or a very dry mouth, frequent urination, high blood sugar and high level of ketones in the urine.…

    • 974 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays