Mr. Penzey Case Study Answers

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1. What were the main findings of Mr. Penzey’s physical exam? How could his CT results be related to his blood pressure findings?
When Mr. Penzey's case study was analyzed, the initial tests performed on him indicated multiple findings. A mass was found during the CT scan, located on the adrenal gland; the adrenal gland is located on top of the kidneys, their function is to help in burning proteins and fats. This is how the adrenal gland keeps the blood pressure under control and regulates the normal flow of blood to the body (McLeod, 2008). There are mainly six major conditions that are associated when a mass is found in the adrenal glands. A condition called Paraganglioma also known as Para, and Pheochromocytoma also known as Pheo, these
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Penzey lab results show a high level of sodium. The average level of sodium ranges between 136-244 mmol/L and his lab results indicated high levels of 150 mmol/L. When sodium is present in high amount in the bloodstream it is difficult for the kidney to filter out water (Wedro). Potassium salt helps by balancing the negative effects of salt on the body. When potassium levels are low the muscle cramp up and weakening of the muscles occurs, which is one of the symptoms shown in Mr. Penzey’s condition. Mr. Penzey also suffers from severe low levels of Renin hypertension (LREH) at about 0.4 while the average range is between 0.5 to 3.3 ng/mL/hr. LREH is a condition that is sensitive to salts. Mr. Penzey level of aldosterone is at 2-9 ng/dl while the average range is 21, this shows he is off track from the normal values. With the information about Mr. Penzey’s low level of potassium and high level of aldosterone, it is clear that his body will reabsorb the sodium causing an electrolyte imbalance that can potentially lead back to high blood pressure, muscle weakness and headaches. Despite Mr. Penzey’s normal pH level at 7.45, he is still in danger of suffering from alkalosis due to his electrolyte imbalance. (Gibbons, 2015). In addition, to analyze Mr. Penzey condition better he can also be tested for the stimulation test for adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), CT scan, electrolyte test and MRI (Sahay, & Sahay, …show more content…
Aldosterone is disrupted when there’s any cardiovascular problem such as arterial hypertension (high blood pressure), also with disorders such as heart failure, liver cirrhosis, and nephrotic syndrome (kidney). In these conditions, different mechanisms associated with the disease of the individual cause the elevation of the hormone levels. Glucocorticoid is known as Cortisol, cortisol is involved in the effective function of the heart. When the pituitary gland, adrenal gland, and hypothalamus secrete cortisol ACTH aids in the stimulation of the adrenal cortex. Therefore ACTH has negligible to no effect with the secretion of aldosterone and it only affects the secretion of cortisol (Wedro).
6. What do you think his condition might

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