Gender Participation In Sports Analysis

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In a similar vein, consumer culture in sport and sporting events is also greatly male-gendered in the past. Consumption of sport and sporting events in many cultures highlights the mechanism reinforcing and defining separation between men and women. Past studies (e.g. Hargreaves, 1994; Bell, 2008) noted that sports (e.g. golf and croquet) were informal and recreational in nature for women; women consumed sport to adorn beauty and indolence rather than competiveness (Bell, 2008). Unlike women, sport and sporting events have long been, as what Fischer and Gainer termed - a ‘male-only social institution’ (Fischer and Gainer, 1994: 85). Perhaps it is best illustrated by early form of ball games (e.g. mob football and Shrovetide football) in …show more content…
At that time, women were denied to consume sports and sporting events under the dictatorship of men and their rationally and biological weaker body structure, as quoted in Freud’s psychoanalytic theories and Darwinism proposal (Fischer and Gainer, 1994). Regarding the biological discourse, a human body was medically limited to the amount of energy, so for the sake of reproductive abilities (Kay, 2003), women should not consume and participate in sports. Although sports like swimming, horse riding and showboating were popular during the 1800s, Clarke (1874) believed that these physical activities were unsuitable for women because many professionals including doctors and scientists deemed sports were hazardous to female bodies, especially during menstruation (Clarke, 1874). Consequently, this biological doctrine discouraged and obstructed women to participate and to consume sport and sporting …show more content…
Kidd’s studies (1990) revealed that men are in fear to lose their arena to nurture and to disorient their masculinities if females widen their social lives upon consumption of sport and sporting events (Kidd, 1990). One noteworthy example best illustrating men’s fear is the Dick Kerr Ladies FC, a women football team gaining huge success by its players and audiences on traditional men’s field. Williams (2003) disclosed that the Football Association (FA) lifted strong opposition in 1921 on eliminating women consumption of football; it encouraged its associated football clubs to reject women playing matches on their grounds. The FA further banned women’s football in view to lessening threats on male games and masculinity brought by the success of women in football team after World War One (Williams, 2003). Associated to this view, numerous scholars (e.g. Kidd, 1990; Fischer and Gainer, 1993; Kay, 2003) commented that women were unsuitable to consume sports due to social and aesthetic reasons. Women are traditionally and socially in role of a domestic realm and men often perceive women as merely housewives. Kay (2003) denoted that the sport consumption could possibly undermine their femininity and transforming women to behave ‘masculinized’ (Kay, 2003). This discourse concludes that consumption of sport and

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