Sensation and Perception Chapter: Sensation and Perception Sensation and Perception Sensation versus Perception Psychophysics and Thresholds Vision USING PSYCHOLOGY: Color Visual receptor: The Eye Operation of the Eye Eye Problem: Color Blindness Hearing Operation of the Ear Ear Problem: Deafness Chemical senses—Smell and Taste Chemical Senses Receptors: The Nose and Taste Buds Operation of the Chemical Senses Other senses: Skin Other Senses: Balance and Body Position Perception Figure-ground Perception The Wholeness of Figure Perception Perceptual Grouping Perception and Attention Stimulus Variation and Perception Perceptual Constancies Visual Perception of Distance Visual Perception of Motion Hearing Perception Illusions as "Errors" in
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The absolute threshold is the smallest stimulus that arouses a sensation. The difference threshold is the smallest change in any stimulation that can be detected. The stimulus for vision is light, which has three physical characteristics: wavelength, intensity, and pureness. The psychological attributes are hue, brightness, and saturation. Complementary colors, as well as other colors, may be mixed in an additive or subtractive process. The receptor for vision is the eye, which contains rods for black-white vision and cones for color vision. Vision is poorest at the blind spot and best at the fovea. Dark adaptation and the Purkinje Shift both result from the shift from cone- to rod-vision. Color blindness affects mainly males, but it is a relatively slight vision problem compared to blindness. The physical stimulus for hearing is pressure waves, which have three physical characteristics: frequency, amplitude, and complexity. We hear sounds in terms of pitch, loudness, and timbre. The receptor for sound is the ear, within which hair cells in the cochlea stimulate the auditory nerve. Two major types of deafness include conduction deafness and nerve deafness.
Sensation and Perception
The physical stimuli for the chemical senses are, for smell, gas and for taste, liquid. Several systems of "basic" smells have been proposed with