Kidney Stones Research Paper

Superior Essays
Introduction Kidney stones, or Nephrolithiasis, is a very common health problem that has been increasingly affecting a higher number of Americans each year. (4) Kidney stones are small and hard deposits that are most commonly made up of mineral and acid compounds and vary in the size and shape of the stone. Kidney stones are four times more likely to occur in men than women, explained by a theory that female hormones can prevent stones, as well as in people of older age and those with unsatisfactory diets that experience common dehydration. Naturally, a wide variety of chemicals and minerals are excreted in urine and over time in can combine to form a stone and will continue to build from new deposits. Kidney stones form inside the kidney …show more content…
First off, 10 ml of EDTA was measured and poured into a burette. Then the three kidney stones and their broken down powders were measured and weighed to .1 gram of each. Then the kidney stone compounds were mixed into 20 ml of pH buffer that was first measured with a graduated cylinder. Than 2-3 drops of the Erichrome Black T indicator is dropped into each solution. Then place that solution in its appropriate beaker under the burette that is filled with the EDTA and very slowly allow it to drip into the kidney stone plus indicator solution. The second that the solution turns the slightest bit different color, stop the burette from leaking and record the amount of EDTA that it took to titrate that kidney stone by looking at the measurement loss on the burette. The most important thing is to make sure that the measurement is recorded at the minimal amount needed to change the color, which can be done by focusing on having a light change rather than a deep color change. These steps were repeated again with each kidney stone, the calcium phosphate, calcium oxalate, and the struvite …show more content…
Percent Yields
Figure 1: Percent Yields of calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, and struvite.

Dissolving of Kidney Stones
Figure 2 A: The weight of the kidney stones before and after dissolving them with lemon juice.
Stone Remedy Initial pH Final pH Time to dissolve Dissolved? Grams left
(after filter)
Calcium Oxalate Lemon Juice 3 5 8 minutes Fully 0 g
Calcium Phosphate Lemon Juice 3 4 10 min Partially .01g
Struvite Lemon Juice 3 3 3 min 8 sec Fully 0 g

Figure 2 B: The weight of the kidney stones before and after dissolving them with apple cider vinegar.
Stone Remedy Initial pH Final pH Time to dissolve Dissolved? Grams left
(after filter)
Calcium Oxalate Apple Cider Vinegar 4 4 10 minutes Partially .02 g
Calcium Phosphate Apple
Vinegar 4 5 10 min Partially .02 g
Struvite Apple Cider Vinegar 4 5 6 minutes Fully 0 g

The chart below displays the titrations of each of the kidney stones and the amount of EDTA needed to titrate each amount.

Kidney Stone Mass of compound Amount of titrated EDTA necessary
Calcium Oxalate: .1 g .2 ml
Calcium Phosphate: .1 g .6 ml
Struvite: .1 g .6

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