John Marshall: The Supreme Court System

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John Marshall is perhaps one of the most influential people in American History. He was born on September 24, 1755 near Germantown on the Virginia frontier. For the most part, Marshall was homeschooled by his father, Thomas, and spent a year at Campbell Academy. He served as a lieutenant in the Continental Army during the Battle of Great Bridge and also served as an officer at the Battle of Brandywine. In 1780, John went on to law school to become a lawyer, and he defended clients against the British creditors. Two years later, he won a seat in the Virginia House of Delegates where he was a leader of the Federalist Party. Even though John Marshall held numerous positions, he is most noted for being the most influential Chief Justice of the …show more content…
John Adams was the sitting president in 1801, when he passed the Judiciary Act of 1801, and appointed the “midnight judges” in their last hours in office before handing it over to Thomas Jefferson. John Marshall was the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court , and had the authorization to establish the precedent Judicial Review. The Judicial Review was the capability of the Supreme Court to step up and limit other branches of government to live up to the constitution. The Judicial Review was introduced during the Philadelphia Convention and was then ratified. However, the Constitution does not openly give court the power of judicial review over the legislative and executive branches of the federal government. Alexander Hamilton, alluded to this in The Federalist #78 when he states, :[T]he courts were designed to be an intermediate body between the people and the legislature, in order, among other things, to keep the latter within the limits assigned to their authority....[W]hen the will of the legislature, declared in it statues, stands in opposition to that of the people, declared in the Constitution, the judges ought to be governed by the latter rather than the former”(http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa78.htm). Hamilton, along with other historians believed that the federal courts would have this power. In 1801 when Thomas Jefferson became president, commissions

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