Identification Of Identification For Forensic Purposes Essay

748 Words Sep 23rd, 2016 3 Pages
Fingerprints have been widely used throughout the world as means of identification for forensic purposes. Forensic experts have extensively relied on premises that fingerprint characteristics are highly discriminatory and immutable amongst the general population (Haber and Haber, 2008).
Fingerprint formation is induced by the stresses and strains experienced by the fetus in utero, which are random and infinite, it is likely that they subsequently produce a random, infinite variety of friction ridge patterns (Gutiérrez-Redomero, and Alonso-Rodríguez, 2013).
Fingerprints are classified into five major common classes: Arch, Tented Arch, Left Loop, Right Loop and Whorl as shown at figure (1) (Cao et al., 2013).
Figure 1: Major five classes of fingerprints: (a) Arch, (b) Tented Arch, (c) Left Loop, (d) Right Loop, (e) Whorl (Cao et al., 2013). The uniqueness of a fingerprint depends on minutiae matching. Minutiae characteristics are local discontinuities in the fingerprint pattern and represent the most prominent local ridge characteristics: terminations and bifurcations. A ridge termination is defined as the point where a ridge ends abruptly, while ridge bifurcation is defined as the point where a ridge forks or diverges into branch ridges as figure (2) shows. A typical fingerprint image contains about 40–100 minutiae (Feng, 2008).

Figure 2: Minutiae of finger print (ridge ending and bifurcation) (Greenberg et al., 2000).

Analysis of fingerprints has been simplified if…

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