Graphophonic Syntatic Semantic And Decipher Language

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The cueing system is a formal structure that helps to enable young children decipher language and develop their reading (Moats, 2000). The system consists of three main categories; semantic, syntactic and graphophonic which aid in creating functional and fluent reading (Moats, 2000). Each category consists of supports in which students are to use in how they figure out unknown words they encounter whilst reading and also to gain meaning from the text, this can be seen in the graph below.
Cueing Systems
Graphophonic Syntatic Semantic
• Phonics
• Phonemic Awareness
• Letters
• Sounds
• Spelling • Vocabulary
• Tenses • Comprehension
• Making sense of texts
(Graph adapted from Dr Ali Cullerton, Ph.D (2015)

The semantic portion
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Syntatic cues are those that are linked with the structure of language such as the reader’s knowledge of word order in sentences and the organisation and structure of whole texts (Department of Education, 2013). It is through this knowledge that readers are able to reduce the range of word possibilities as they know the grammatical, vocab and tense restrictions that are a part of language construction (Hempenstall, 2009). It is the logic in our sentence structure which helps readers understand if what is written makes sense, aka, does this sound right? (Hempenstall, …show more content…
These concepts and structures can be seen in the visual information available on the printed page, as well as from the reader’s knowledge of phonics and configuration of sentences (Bridge, 1979). As the reader decodes an unknown word, they are using their graphophonic knowledge; it is how they make the sounds they know with the letter they see, otherwise known as the groups of letters and the sounds associated with them (Cappellini, 2005). It is graphophonic knowledge that assists readers in making meaning of a text and how to figure out unknown words. Substitution plays a role in this, this is seen in the example of Cappellini’s work where the young student substituted words that looked similar (wouldn’t/won’t, swapped/swiped) as that is what his previous experience had included (2005). The student then goes on the replace ‘cabbage’ with ‘carrot’, another vegetable that starts with the same letter as cabbage does. This miscue made logical sense and did not detract from his understanding of the novel, all by drawing upon his graphophonic knowledge (Cappellini, 2005). In terms of all three of the cueing a system, graphophonics is employed as a back up to help confirm the choice of words the reader has deciphered (Hempenstall,

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