Essay on Gender Development

1367 Words Jul 31st, 2012 6 Pages
Theories of Gender Development
Sam Mathews

Freud’s Work:

1. Psychoanalytic perspective has viewed gender, sex, and sexuality in an essentialist light 2. Freud’s psychoanalytic perspective has been “popularized” and has become part of our social consciousness 3. Structuralist—mind has an inherent structure (id, ego, superego; unconscious, preconscious, conscious) 4. “Instincts” drive our personalities—life/sexual and death/aggressive 5. Psychosexual stages “track” our development a. Oral b. Anal c. Phallic d. Latent e. Genital 6. Phallic stage is critical in that a “psychoanalytic dimorphism” occurs a. Oedipal/Electra b. Resolution of these stages
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Questioned assumption that women felt their bodies inferior; 3. One of the first to explore how culture impacted psychosexual development; 4. Wrote paper that suggested Freud’s view was the product of a male bias a. the fears within males were really of being reabsorbed into the vagina; b. castration fear was really a fear of becoming a woman; c. men envied the woman’s ability to give birth and suckle the infant; d. social environment in which children are raised can harm them through two processes i. devaluation—failure to respect the child as a unique and worthwhile individual ii. sexualization—parents taking a sexual approach to the child e. Women envy men's freedom to pursue their interests because of their own overemphasis on relationships this was her interpretation of penis envy 5. Horney was ultimately disqualified as a training analyst by the New York Psychoanalytic Society…but gained fame and wealth through writing and other professional activities

Nancy Chadrow (sociologist): 1. Focused on mother—child bond a. Mother—infant daughter bond closer due to maternal identification (infants don’t discriminate yet) b. Mother—son bond less intense; boys treated differently c. Daughters have a more evolved sense of identity because their relationship with their mothers does not have to be disrupted to find the

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