First Aid Importance

F irst aid is an important part of everyday life at home, work or at play. Everyone should learn first aid and be willing to administer basic care until emergency assistance arrives. Not every incident requiring first aid is a life-and-death situation. First aid knowledge is commonly used to manage minor injuries at home, work or play.

First aid is the immediate and temporary care given to the victim of an accident or sudden illness to preserve life, assist recovery and prevent aggravation of the condition, until the services of a doctor can be obtained or during transport to hospital or to the casualty’s home.

First Aid provider is responsible for all of the following (remember 5 P’s)
• Preserve life
• Protect the casualty
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Prevent Deterioration of Injury or Illness
• Cover wounds
• Immobilize fractures
• Check for other injuries

3. Promote Recovery & Protect Unconsciousness
• Relieve pain
• Reassurance
• Gentle handling
• Position casualty in lateral position

During an emergency you should perform all the following duties:
• Make yourself safe (if possible wear disposable gloves, mask and apron/gown)
• Assess the danger
• Make the situation safe
• Give an emergency aid
• Call for immediate help (inform the relatives too if possible)
• Reassure the casualty and bystanders
• Use bystanders to help
• Complete the report, which includes details of the incidents like: date, time, location, person(s) involved, what happened and who was informed.

Unconsciousness is a state where one is unable to maintain an awareness of self and surrounding.

Causes of Unconsciousness
Following are the causes of unconsciousness (remember the acronym FISH SHAPED)
• Fainting
• Imbalance of heat (hyperthermia & hypothermia)
• Shock
• Heart attack (angina pectoris)
• Stroke
• Head injuries
• Asphyxia
• Poisoning
• Epilepsy
• Diabetic emergencies (diabetic coma and diabetic shock)

Levels of
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Cardiac arrest is a sudden stop in effective blood circulation due to poor or no heart contraction. It is also known as cardiopulmonary arrest or circulatory arrest. An unexpected cardiac arrest is known as sudden cardiac arrest (SCA).

Causes of Cardiac Arrest
Following are the main causes of cardiopulmonary arrest:
• Myocardial infarction (heart attack)
• Drowning
• Burns
• Shock

Signs & Symptoms of Cardiac Arrest
Following are some of the presenting signs and symptoms of cardiopulmonary arrest:
• Patient is unconscious
• No breathing sound can be heard
• Air exchange from mouth or nose can’t be felt
• No chest movements
• Cyanosis (blue color) of skin, lips, tong & nail-beds
• Absence of carotid or femoral pulses
• Absence of heart sounds

Chain of survival is a five-step process for providing treatment to victims of sudden cardiac arrest. Victims of sudden cardiac arrest survive if all the following five steps are performed quickly:
• Emergency response system
• Early CPR
• Rapid defibrillation
• Advance life support
• Post cardiac arrest

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