# Examples Of Regression Discontinuity Design

Improved Essays
Regression-Discontinuity Design. A powerful, alternative design for causal inference that is underutilized in the health and intervention sciences is the regression discontinuity (RD) design (Thistlewaite & Campbell, 1960). In its simplest form, the RD design involves the use of a screening measure of some form that is continuous and given to all persons. A cut point or criterion is set, which determines whether individuals are assigned to an intervention condition or a comparison condition. The cut point is determined on the basis of need or a cost-benefit analysis. If an analysis of an outcome measure shows a change in the mean-level or slope-angle that occurs for individuals at the cut point, then a causal conclusion of the effectiveness …show more content…
The horizontal axis is the screening measure and the vertical axis is the dependent variable, math test scores. The counterfactual regression line is what the regression line would look like if the treatment had no effect. In a typical RD design, the form of the counterfactual regression line is assumed. It can, however, be estimated by adding a pretest comparison group, as Wing and Cook (2013) suggested (as detailed later). Usually the counterfactual regression line will be smooth across the cutoff point, as it is in Figure 2. Assuming a smooth pretest line across the cutoff point, a discontinuity in the actual regression line indicates a treatment effect, with the magnitude of the treatment effect being measured by the size of the discontinuity (Braden and Bryant, 1990). The discontinuity in Figure 2 indicates that the treatment did have an …show more content…
Conversely, if 0 was in place of 1, it would be the outcome of the untreated group. Pre_it is a dummy variable identifying observations during a pretest period prior where the treatment has yet to be implemented. If Pre_it=1, this would reflect observations for the treatment group during the pretest period. The θ_P parameter is a fixed difference of conditional mean outcomes across pretest and posttest periods. A unknown smoothing function is represented by the g(A_i ), and it is assumed to be constant across the pre- and posttest time periods (for further discussion of a smoothing parameter see Peng, 1999). The relationship between the assignment variable and the outcome variable during the pretest period are the foundation of this design, it allows for extrapolation beyond the assignment cut-off criterion in the posttest period (Wing and Cook,

## Related Documents

• Great Essays

Research Design Setting The settings in which this data was collected were vocational rehabilitation centers in each state in the United States. Each year, service providers are required to enter data into a national database regarding individuals who have exited vocational rehabilitation programs under their care. This data is organized into a national dataset, which contains each exiting participant. Exits are interchangeably described as “closures” and fall into seven different closure categories.…

• 1542 Words
• 7 Pages
Great Essays
• Decent Essays

Annotated Bibliography Chaux, Enrique, et al. "Effects Of The Cyberbullying Prevention Program Media Heroes (Medienhelden) On Traditional Bullying." Aggressive Behavior 42.2 (2016): 157-165 9p. CINAHL Plus with Full Text. Web.…

• 552 Words
• 3 Pages
Decent Essays
• Improved Essays

1.) Which of the following considerations would be most important to someone committed to looking at outcome measures? a. Qualified teachers are in the positions that they were specifically trained for *b. Students are engaged in class discussions c.…

• 778 Words
• 4 Pages
Improved Essays
• Improved Essays

Three goals have been expressed in this care: for Neveah to exhibit a reduction in angry outbursts, an increase in positive self-statements, and a reduction in family conflict regarding her sexual orientation. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the interventions for these goals will be measured using an AB design. According to Bloom and Britner (2012), phase A is the gathering of baseline data to document the clients behavior prior to the intervention. The baseline data is generally gathered through observation or an assessment tool (Bloom & Britner, 2012). Phase B gathers data regarding the client’s behavior during the intervention phase of treatment (Bloom & Britner, 2012).…

• 937 Words
• 4 Pages
Improved Essays
• Decent Essays

The program is based on a Pre-Experimental design because there is no comparison group but rather only one group is being looked at before and after the X variable is present. According to the author, she believes…

• 633 Words
• 3 Pages
Decent Essays
• Improved Essays

Suicides occur across every segment of the force and Army leadership is committed to reversing the trend of increasing suicidal behavior. Tank Automotive and Armaments Command (TACOM) Life Cycle Material Command (LCMC) Suicide Awareness Response Center (SARC) ensures our Soldiers and Department of the Army (DA) Civilians are informed and educated on the risk factors and warning signs of suicide as well as how to provide assistance and/or intervention. TACOM LCMC SARC provides the resources needed to assist soldiers and DA Civilians with identifying warning signs of suicide. These resources include but not limited to a National suicide Prevention lifeline, Military Crisis Line, and Army Strong ACE Cards.…

• 758 Words
• 4 Pages
Improved Essays
• Improved Essays

Health development is what public health professionals attempt to attain. According to the CDC (1999), “effective program evaluation is a systematic way to improve and account for public health actions by involving procedures that are useful, feasible, ethical, and accurate”. The six methodological steps from the proposed framework that will be used to evaluate the Tuskegee case study include: description of the public health intervention, specification and modification of the normative criteria, evaluation of the public health intervention, overall evaluation or synthesis of the public health intervention, generating recommendations, and monitoring.…

• 663 Words
• 3 Pages
Improved Essays
• Improved Essays

Primary outcome measure: Incidence of hospital-identified Clostridium difficile infection (HI-CDI) – identified according to the national definition of diarrhoea symptoms and a stool tests showing C. difficile toxin A, B or C – was “defined as CDI diagnosed in a patient attending any area of an acute public hospital” (Slimings et al, 2014). Time of analysis: From the 1st of January 2011 to 31st December 2012. Analyses were conducted in patient-days, which was defined as “number of days of patients’ hospitalisation during a specified period” (Slimings et al, 2014) The estimated incidence rate for all states (excluding ACT) is 0.00036, or 3.60 per 10,000 patient-days.…

• 2421 Words
• 10 Pages
Improved Essays
• Decent Essays

The participant were separated in to two groups, control (n=87) and intervention…

• 239 Words
• 1 Pages
Decent Essays
• Superior Essays

Introduction Adult boot camps, also called “shock incarceration” programs, were first implemented in Georgia and Oklahoma in the early 1980s (Guerrero, 2009, p.73). They are short-term residential facilities with programs that resemble those within a military basic training camp. The purpose of these camps is to scare or “shock” an individual away from participating in criminal behavior by placing them in a harsh physical environment. In late 1990s, third-generation boot camps began to rise and are still used today. These camps incorporate drug and alcohol treatment programs and emphasize an aftercare component when individuals are released back into society (as seen in the Alabama boot camp program).…

• 1657 Words
• 7 Pages
Superior Essays
• Improved Essays

Clinical inquiry helps clinicians to determine the best treatment from the available choices. Evidence-based care is expected in healthcare because it leads to higher quality of care and best patient outcomes. Evidence-based practice encompass the best available evidence, as well as, clinical expertise and patients’ preferences (Melnyk & Fineout-Overholt, 2015). Clinicians must conduct a well-constructed search to appraise the evidence. The search of evidence can be a complicated process due to the large amount of scientific information available (Melnyk & Fineout-Overholt, 2015).…

• 598 Words
• 3 Pages
Improved Essays
• Great Essays

Introduction A Critical Review of Kuyken, Willem, et al. " Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy compared with maintenance antidepressant treatment in the prevention of depressive relapse or recurrence (PREVENT): a randomised controlled trial. " The Lancet (2015).…

• 1648 Words
• 7 Pages
Great Essays
• Improved Essays

The article that I found is about gallstone disease and how it is linked to diabetic patients. Gallstones are small hard deposits that are formed in the gallbladder. Gallstones can be cholesterol or mixed type. Most people have gallstones and do not even realize it. Gallstones are not soluble and must remain suspended in fluid and be transported into bile salts called micelles.…

• 1011 Words
• 5 Pages
Improved Essays
• Great Essays

Psychology Unit 3 Holiday Homework Why do psychologists make inferences?  Because they assist in drawing conclusions in particular situations. List and briefly outline the steps in psychological research. Identification of the research topic: Finding a topic or problem to be researched. Development of Hypothesis: Developing a testable prediction for what you think will happen.…

• 1296 Words
• 6 Pages
Great Essays
• Improved Essays

3.8. DEDUCTIVE RESEARCH “A deductive approach is concerned with developing a hypothesis (or hypotheses) based on existing theory, and then designing a research strategy to test the hypothesis” (Wilson, 2010:7) Monette et al (2005: 34) further explains deductive approach by the means of hypotheses, which can be derived from the propositions of the theory. In other words, deductive approach is concerned with deducting conclusions from premises or propositions. “Deduction begins with an expected pattern that is tested against observations, whereas induction begins with observations and seeks to find a pattern within them” (Babbie, 2010: 52). Is has been stated that “deductive means reasoning from the particular to the general.…

• 1705 Words
• 7 Pages
Improved Essays