Evolution Of Collective Security To Collective Defense In NATO

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The Evolution of Collective Security to Collective Defence in NATO
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) adopted the principle of collective security framework based on the concept of collective defence. Collective security and collective defence are different. This can be seen on the philosophies underlying their use. Collective defence affiliated with realism while collective security is liberalism.
In international relations perspective, realism main concern is their self-interest. All their action undertaken is about getting powers and have the other countries do what they want them to do. Realist practices zero-sum game which is when one country gains, another country has to lose. It is the world where anarchy rules the international
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United State immediately consulted with the alliances and they all agreed that United State had become the object of an armed attack. This incident had covered the Article V of North Atlantic Treaty. NATO invoked their collective defence provision for the first time after the terrorist attacked the United States.
Even the Article V has been invoked there is no determination whether the attacked against United State was directly from abroad. Thus, if the determination has been decided, each ally should decide what assistance they should provide. When become to practice, each ally should discuss among them on the action they will take regarding the issue. Any collective action will be decided by the North Atlantic council.
The action made by them is not necessary for using military forces but it depends on the resources they have and can use at that time. Each of the members shall contribute and will consult with the other members. All of the members concern about their ultimate aim which is to maintain peace among of their alliances.
In 2005, NATO changes their principle from collective defence to collective security. Collective security is focusing on defending each other from any attacked by the members in the
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The existence of United Nations is only to replace ineffective League of Nations. In other words, United Nations is the new form of League of Nations. Its objective include maintaining international peace and security, promoting human right, fostering social and economic development and protecting the environment and also providing humanitarian aids in certain circumstances. The application of Collective Security is not really relevant for United Nations. Some scholars argued about the effectiveness of the Collective Security applied in United Nations. One of the problem that can be the reason why Collective Security is not relevant to be applied in United Nations is, the unwillingness of countries to subordinate their sovereign interest to collective actions. This problem is all about the mutual interest among the United Nations members. Every single states in the United Nations has their own stands and view about particular issues or

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