Essay On Genetic Transfer In Transgenesis

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Outline the biological ideas to explain how humans manipulate genetic transfer in selective breeding i.e. process and reason.
What is selective breeding and why is it done?
Selective breeding is a process where humans choose organisms with desirable traits and breed them together to produce offspring with the hope of offspring inheriting these desired characteristics. The aim of selective breeding is to develop a pure breed in a species or to improve the overall quality of a product such as size, colour and taste. The goal of selective breeding is produce offspring with desirable traits that can then successfully pass it onto the next generation.
How is selective breeding carried out?
There are many ways to carry out selective breeding,
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process and reason.
What is transgenesis and why is it done?
Transgenesis is taking one gene from an organism and placing it into a different organism. By doing this, the gene or protein can be expressed in the second organism. Transgenesis aim is to improve nutrition of crop and to enhance desirable traits. It is done as it allows direct modification to genetic material that may not be naturally present, unlike selective breeding which takes a long time.
Through transgenesis there is a great potential to benefit humanity through increasing of crops production, livestock, lightening disease, reducing waste, detecting and prevent crime. As a result of this, any organism that has their DNA altered is called a genetically modified organism (GMO).
What is used to carry out transgenesis?
Transgenesis is carried out through the use of Gene technology. Gene technology is a very large field that includes genetic engineering, DNA analysis and other forms of genetic modification. Because of gene technology transgenesis can be carried
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1) Restriction enzymes are like molecular scissor, they are used to cut the DNA at a specific recognition site. As a result of this sticky ends will be produced.
2) The foreign gene is added into the protein by using the same restriction enzyme. Through doing this the enzyme will cut the same restriction enzyme.
3) Annealing will occur this is when pieces of DNA with matching sticky ends will ‘anneal’ together through complementary base pairing in the host plant.
4) DNA ligase enzyme will make a permanent join in the protein.
The next step is to separate the large molecules, this is done through gel electrophoresis. Gel electrophoresis is when DNA samples are placed wells and covered with solution. After the gel is run with the band of DNA fragments of the correct length is cut out and DNA is extracted. It is ready to be joined by the host.
The gene can be replicated many times. To clone a gene outside of living organism the polymerase chain reaction is used. This is when the DNA strand is heated at 98°c for five minutes. Add reaction mix, short primer pieces are added to either side of the strand. Following that we add out enzyme DNA polymerase and free nucleotides and DNA polymerase will copy the desired gene. The reason why polymerase enzyme is used is due to the fact that it can endure high temperatures and still

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