Anxiety Disorders: A Case Study

1454 Words 6 Pages
Although environmental and genetic factors are prevalent, a strong belief in transmission of an anxiety disorder is within the family. According to Fisak and Grills Taquechel (2007), a child’s parents can contribute to the likelihood of developing anxiety through modeling of learning experiences, transferring of information, and reinforcement schedules. A top-down or bottom-up approach can be used to predict the source of the phobia or fear. Visual signs of fear, such as facial expressions, in the presence of the stimuli are seen as observational learning. Modeling produces our most complex behaviors. Children can learn and develop anxiety and the contributing traits through salient behaviors of their caregivers.
Fredrikson, Annas, Fischer, and Wik (1996) used a mailed out questionnaire of true-false questions to determine the age and gender difference in different phobias. A visual analogue scale was used for the ratings of fears such as snakes, spiders, lightning, enclosed spaces, darkness, flying, heights, injections, dentists, and injuries. Males resulted in having multiple phobias; however, women only had a single phobia. Animal phobias, in accordance with
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The researchers used the interaction between the vulnerability of being female and the behaviorally inhibited temperament to determine the level of sensitivity (warm-up) to the types of responses. A warning signal was elicited first. This required the rat to emit an ‘avoidance’ response by pressing the lever within the first sixty seconds of the warning signal. If the response was not delivered, shocks were administered for a period of three minutes. Escape behaviors or responses were measured by allowing the rats to terminate the shock within the first minute after the signal. The amount of time for the responses to occur and the presence of a warm-up were

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